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World History Chapter 3 and 4
Terms in this set (40)
A group of people who sought freedom from religious persecution in England by founding a colony at Massachusetts Bay in the early 1600s. They wanted to build a model colony in the new world for other Christians to follow as an example.
The global transfer of plants, animals, and diseases that occurred during the European colonization of the Americas
business in which investors pool their wealth for a common purpose, then share the profits
A group of people who, in 1620, founded Plymouth in Massachusetts to escape religious persecution in England
A dynasty of shoguns that ruled a unified Japan from 1603 to 1867
A land controlled by another nation
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
The voyage that brought captured Africans to the West Indies, and later to North and South America , to be sold as slaves-so called because it was considered the middle leg of the triangular trade. Sickening cruelty marked this portion of the voyage.
Atlantic Slave Trade
Lasted from 16th century until the 19th century. The buying, transporting, and selling of Africans for work in the Americas. One part of a three-part economical system known as the Middle Passage of the Triangular Trade.
-The transatlantic trading network along which slaves and other goods were carried between Africa, England, Europe, the West Indies, and the colonies in the Americas
-A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Africa sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa
An economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit
A grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right use Native Americans as laborers on it
-A people, native to Manchuria, who ruled China during the Qing Dynasty (1644-1912)
- invaded China and Ming dynasty collapsed. Created Qing Dynasty
China's last dynasty, which ruled from 1644 to 1912 which was overthrown by revolutionaries; during this dynasty China was ruled by the Manchu
A Japanese feudal lord who commanded a private army of samurai
Dutch East India Company
richest and most powerful group, a company founded by the Dutch in early 17th century to establish and direct trade throughout Asia
Chinese dynasty that ruled from 1368-1644 (when China became the most dominant power)
-The Dutch holdings in North America
-Founded New York (New Amsterdam) in 1609, Henry Hudson, an Englishman that was in service of the French found 3 water ways: Hudson Bay, Hudson River and the Hudson Strait. The French established a fur trade with the Iroquois Indians, and then it was claimed by the Dutch.
First permanent English settlement in North America and a product of a joint stock company. A company of London investors were granted a charter from King James to found a colony in North America. More than 100 settlers reached the coast of VA and named settlement Jamestown after the king
French colony in North America, founded 1608. Samuel de Champlain sailed up the St. Lawrence with 32 colonists, they founded Quebec ( became base of France's colonial empire in North America) . It fell to the British in 1763 at the end of the French and Indian War.
-The son of Hongwu, and continued many of his father's policies
- moved the Ming capital to Beijing.
-He built the imperial city, which became the Forbidden City.
-Launched 1st of 7 voyages of exploration
-(Zhu Yuanshang) cruel leader (1368-1398)
-leader of the peasant uprising that drove Mongols out of power
- founder of the Ming Dynasty.
-Encouraged agriculture, traditions, and institutions.
-Favored Confucian moral standards
Vasco da Gama
-In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route.
-explored African coast, filled ships with spices, silks, and gems from Calicut.
-Gave Portugal a direct sea route to India
Portuguese explorer who in 1488 led the first expedition to sail around the southern tip of Africa from the Atlantic and sight the Indian Ocean. He reached tip of Africa & storm sent him and his crew off course. Returned home from exhaustion and hunger. Wanted to Christianize the undiscovered world.
-Portuguese prince who started a school for sailors and sponsored early voyages of exploration.
-He wanted to spread Christianity.
-Founded a school of exploration on southwestern coast of Portugal.
-Known as Henry the Navigator
- gathered experts in science, mapmaking, and shipbuilding whose work led to a fleet of ships that explored the coast of west Africa.
-one of the Qing dynasty's most successful rulers; expansion; support of the arts; enjoyed learning from Jesuits
-Ruled for 60 years, reduced government expenses and lowered taxes.
-Supported intellectuals by offering them government positions
-Ambitious Daimyo who hoped to take control of the entire country.
-defeated his rivals and seized the Imperial Capital, Kyoto in 1568
Nobunaga's best general; succeeded as leading military power in Japan; continued efforts to break power of daimyos; constructed a series of military alliances that made him the military master of Japan in 1590; controlled Japan and china; died in 1598.
Italian (Genosese) navigator who discovered the New World, in 1492, in the service of Spain while looking for a route to Asia by sailing west, not east or south (but instead found the Bahamas) (1451-1506).
Spanish conquistador, who Montezuma thought was a god; defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico in 1520-21 with only 600 men and European diseases that devastated Indian populations
Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima (1475-1541)
Incan ruler, kidnapped and killed (offered $$ for his release but was strangled by the Spanish)
Chief of the Wampanoag Indians who led an attack on villages throughout New England. This was the largest conflict in 1675. He was also known as King Philip and his rebellion was called King Philip's War.
Treaty of Tordesillas/Line of Demarcation
a 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.
French and Indian War
Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in 1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse. Part of a larger war-wide conflict between England and France known as the Seven Year's War
Treaty of Paris (1763)
ended revolutionary war and recognized American independence
God, glory, and gold were the primary motives for exploration. Explorers want to convert new people to Christianity, have fame, and get incredibly rich. They also wanted to find new trade routes to Asia. Inventions that made these expeditions possible are the caravel (an improved ship design), the astrolabe (helped determine their location at seas), and the compass (more accurately track direction).
What inspired Europeans to begin exploring foreign lands in the 1400s? What made it possible for them to begin these expeditions?
The pattern was to explore, conquer, enslave(encomienda), and colonize North and South America. The encomienda system was the Spanish forcing Native Americans to work. Under this system, natives farmed, ranched, or mined for Spanish landlords. The slaves were forced into their religion. In triangular trade Europeans transported manufactured goods to the west coast of Africa.
What was the general pattern of conquest and settlement followed by the Spanish in the Americas?
Slaves in Muslim societies had some legal rights and opportunity for social mobility ( serve in army). African slaves could escape slavery by marrying into the family they served. It was not like this in America. Slavery in the Americas was much more cruel. For example, they worked long days and suffered beatings. In the Americas, children could be slaves, they weren't prisoners of war, and slavery was hereditary.
How did slavery in the Americas differ from slavery in most African and Muslim societies?
When the colonial empires were established, new wealth from the Americas was coupled with a dramatic growth in overseas trade. England uses mercantilism to get money (buys raw materials from colonies, manufactures them, then sells products back to colonies). The money came in slowly, so they were able to regulate it and avoid inflation. The effect it had on Spain was that they suffered from inflation, because of the boatloads of gold and silver they got from their American colonies.
What effects did the establishment of colonial empires in the Americas and the dramatic increase in overseas trade and the world's wealth have on Europe and Asia?
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