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22 terms

Overview of the Science of Nutrition

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Nutrients
Substances obtained from food and used in the body to promote growth, maintenance, and repair
6 Classes of Nutrients
1. Carbohydrate
2. Fat
3. Protein
4. Vitamins
5. Minerals
6. Water
Essential Nutrients
Nutrients that must be obtained from food because the body can't make it
Energy (Calorie)-Yielding Nutrients
1. Carbohydrate
2. Fat
3. Protein
Nutrients that don't yield energy
1. Water
2. Vitamins
3. Minerals
Number of calories 1 gram of carbohydrate contains
4
Number of calories 1 gram of fat contains
9
Number of calories 1 gram of protein contains
4
Number of calories 1 gram of alcohol contains
7
Function of Vitamins and Minerals
Regulate the release of energy and other aspects of metabolism
Function of water in the body
Provides the medium for life processes
Relationship between diet and the leading causes of death
Leading causes of death are chronic diseases (instead of infectious diseases), all of which have dietary components
Malnutrition
Any condition caused by an excess, deficiency, or imbalance of calories or nutrients
Overnutrition
Calorie or nutrient overconsumption severe enough to cause disease or increased risk of disease; form of malnutrition
Examples of Malnutrition
Starvation
Obesity
Deficiency disease (like Pellagra)
Degenerative Disease
Chronic disease characterized by deterioration of the body organs as a result of misuse and neglect
Healthy People 2020
National health promotion and disease prevention agenda for 2010 to 2020; goals focus on risk reduction, and specifies targets for nutrient and food intake
Hunger
The physiological need for food
Appetite
The psychological desire to eat, often but not always accompanied by hunger
Factors affecting food choices
Taste
Positive associations (social gatherings, celebrations)
Psychological needs (cravings)
Availability (stores nearby)
Income and food prices
Convenience (what is fast, ready-to-eat)
Advertising and the media (commercials, news)
Social and cultural factors
Religion
Social Groups
Group of people, such as a family, who depend on one another and share a set of norms, beliefs, values, and behaviors
Culture
Knowledge, beliefs, customs, laws, morals, art, and literature acquired by members of a society and passed along to succeeding generations.