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Test 1


developed by John B. Watson, claims that most human behavior is not instinctive but learned within social environment

Erik H. Erikson

felt that personality develops over the entire life course in patterned ways.

symbolic interaction approach

ignores how structural factors such as class affect people's experiences

Elisabeth Kubler-Ross

found that death is an orderly transition involving specific stages


in Frued's model it represents the presence of culture within the individual

social conflict approach

based upon the philosophical doctrine of materialism

macro level

both the structural functional and the social conflict approaches

theoretical approach

basic image of society that guides thinking and research

global perspective

by using this we see that rich societies prolong childhood much longer than poor societies

Gerhard Lenski

focused on technology as having great power to change society

Auguste Comte

coined the term sociology

correlation of two variables

they must vary together

postindustrial society

based upon an information based economy


this guides human behavior more than most people realize

cause and effect relationship

doesn't occur when each variable is shown to be independent of the other

cultural change

set in motion by invention, discovery, and diffusion

Pre operational Stage

created by Jean Piaget, the level of development at which individuals first use language and other cultural symbols

structural functional approach

views society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability

micro level focus

two airplane passengers getting to know each other


the systematic study of human society

latent function

building relationships through sports

carol gilligan

extended Lawrence Kohnberg's research, showing that girls and boys typically use different standards in assessing situations as right and wrong

popular culture

cultural patterns that are widespread among a society's population

Karl Marx

wanted to not only understand society but also wanted to change it

nonmaterial culture

as part of human culture religion would be considered what

social experience

according to George Herbert Mead this is based on the exchange of symbols

latent functions

unrecognized and unintended consequences of the social structure are called latent functions

symbolic interaction

highlights the fact that it is not so much what people do that matters as much as what the meaning that they attach to their behavior

high income nations

these nations tend to emphasize self expression

Peter Berger

described using sociological perspective as seeing the general in the perspective

cultural transmission

the process of passing cultural patterns form one generation to another

Comte's Metaphysical State

Thomas Hobbes idea that society reflects a selfish human nature illustrates thinking similar to this


asks subjects to respond to a series of items in a questionnaire or an interview

Sapir-Whorf thesis

critics of this point out that language does not determine reality

social conflict approach

can be called the framework for building theory that sees society as an area of inequality that generates conflict and change

resocialization process

stripping away an old identity, then building a new identity reflects Goffmans description of this


the lifelong social experience by which human beings develop their potential and learn culture


drawing conclusions about all of humanity based on information drawn only from males


distinguish between right and wrong


distinguish between polite and rude


this differs from philosophy by focusing on what the ideal society should be


a way of understanding the world based on science


an education program that recognizes the cultural diversity of the united states and promotes equality of all cultural traditions


refers to the beliefs, values, behavior, and material objects that together constitute a people's way of life

anticipatory socialization

when people model themselves after the members of peer groups they would like to join they are engaging in this


this typically has the greatest influence on the socialization process especially in the early years

interpretive sociology

_______________ focuses on the meanings that people attach to behavior.

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