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47 terms

Sociology

Test 1
STUDY
PLAY
Behaviorism
developed by John B. Watson, claims that most human behavior is not instinctive but learned within social environment
Erik H. Erikson
felt that personality develops over the entire life course in patterned ways.
symbolic interaction approach
ignores how structural factors such as class affect people's experiences
Elisabeth Kubler-Ross
found that death is an orderly transition involving specific stages
superego
in Frued's model it represents the presence of culture within the individual
social conflict approach
based upon the philosophical doctrine of materialism
macro level
both the structural functional and the social conflict approaches
theoretical approach
basic image of society that guides thinking and research
global perspective
by using this we see that rich societies prolong childhood much longer than poor societies
Gerhard Lenski
focused on technology as having great power to change society
Auguste Comte
coined the term sociology
correlation of two variables
they must vary together
postindustrial society
based upon an information based economy
Society
this guides human behavior more than most people realize
cause and effect relationship
doesn't occur when each variable is shown to be independent of the other
cultural change
set in motion by invention, discovery, and diffusion
Pre operational Stage
created by Jean Piaget, the level of development at which individuals first use language and other cultural symbols
structural functional approach
views society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability
micro level focus
two airplane passengers getting to know each other
sociology
the systematic study of human society
latent function
building relationships through sports
carol gilligan
extended Lawrence Kohnberg's research, showing that girls and boys typically use different standards in assessing situations as right and wrong
popular culture
cultural patterns that are widespread among a society's population
Karl Marx
wanted to not only understand society but also wanted to change it
nonmaterial culture
as part of human culture religion would be considered what
social experience
according to George Herbert Mead this is based on the exchange of symbols
latent functions
unrecognized and unintended consequences of the social structure are called latent functions
symbolic interaction
highlights the fact that it is not so much what people do that matters as much as what the meaning that they attach to their behavior
high income nations
these nations tend to emphasize self expression
Peter Berger
described using sociological perspective as seeing the general in the perspective
cultural transmission
the process of passing cultural patterns form one generation to another
Comte's Metaphysical State
Thomas Hobbes idea that society reflects a selfish human nature illustrates thinking similar to this
survey
asks subjects to respond to a series of items in a questionnaire or an interview
Sapir-Whorf thesis
critics of this point out that language does not determine reality
social conflict approach
can be called the framework for building theory that sees society as an area of inequality that generates conflict and change
resocialization process
stripping away an old identity, then building a new identity reflects Goffmans description of this
Socialization
the lifelong social experience by which human beings develop their potential and learn culture
overgeneralizing
drawing conclusions about all of humanity based on information drawn only from males
Mores
distinguish between right and wrong
Folkways
distinguish between polite and rude
Sociology
this differs from philosophy by focusing on what the ideal society should be
positivism
a way of understanding the world based on science
Multiculturalism
an education program that recognizes the cultural diversity of the united states and promotes equality of all cultural traditions
culture
refers to the beliefs, values, behavior, and material objects that together constitute a people's way of life
anticipatory socialization
when people model themselves after the members of peer groups they would like to join they are engaging in this
family
this typically has the greatest influence on the socialization process especially in the early years
interpretive sociology
_______________ focuses on the meanings that people attach to behavior.