world history patterns of interaction chapter 8 vocabulary
Terms in this set (29)
Sahel means "coastline". African people may have named it this because the Sahara seemed like a vast ocean of sand.
Deadliest creature lurking in rain forests. Tsetse flies carry a disease that is deadly to livestock and can cause fatal sleeping sickness in humans.
Grassy plains. Africa's savannas are not just endless plains. They include mountainous highlands and swampy tropical stretches. Covered with tall grasses and dotted with trees, the savannas cover over 40% of Africa. Home to the majority of the African peoples. In most years this produces abundant agricultural product.
Africa's earliest peoples were nomadic hunter-gathers - the men hunted and the women and children gathered roots and berries. They moved from place to place following animal herds and depending on the environmental conditions.
herders or pastoralists
These people kept cattle, goats, or sheep. They were nomads who drove their animals to find water and good pastures.
Families that shared common ancestors sometimes formed groups known as clans.
The oldest known type of belief system in the world. A religion in which spirits play an importnant role in regulating daily life. They believe that spirits are present in animals, plants, and other natural forces, and also take the form of the souls of their ancestors.
Storytellers who kept Africa's histories alive, passing it from parent to child.
The process in which land slowly dries out until little or no vegetation exists becoming a desert. Primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.
Waste residue from smelting iron.
West Africa's earliest known culture of the Nok people. First West African people known to smelt iron to make tools for farming and weapons for hunting.
The process that uses a furnace to separate iron from the unwanted minerals bound up with it in rocks.
This city was uncovered by archaeologists in 1977; it is located on a tributary of the Niger River in West Africa. Here scientists discovered hundreds of thousands of artifacts dating from as early as 250 B.C. to 1400 A.D. -- making this city the oldest known city in Africa south of the Sahara. A bustling trading center.
A permanent move from one country or region to another.
Environmental, economic or politcal factors can either push people out of an area or pull them into an area. An example of an environmental pull factor might be abundant land that attracts people. On the other hand, the depletion of natural resources forces people away afrom a location - a push factor.
effects of migration
-redistribution of the population may change population density
-cultural blending of lanuages or ways of life may occur
-ideas and technologies may be shared
-People's quality of life mybe improves as a result of moving.
-clashes between groups may created unrest, persecutions, or even war
-environmental conditions may change, causing famine, or depleted natural resources
-employment oppurtunites may dry up, creating unemployment and poverty
For over 1,500 years small groups, farmers and nomadic herders who developed and passed along the skill of ironworking, influenced most of Africa south of the Sahara by spreading their language and culture. They used a farming technique called slash and burn. When they moved, the Bantu speakers shared their skills with the people they met, adapted their methods to suit each new environment, and learned new customs.
San people of the Kalahari Desert
Desert-dwelling African nomadic hunter-gatherers, not influenced by the Bantu-speakers culture
Rain-forest dwellers, early Africans who retained their own culture and often fought Bantu speakers
A strong ruler ( 325 - 360 A.D.) who enlarged Aksum, built up trade and introduced Christainity, Aksum reached its golden age under his rule.
First people to have written language call ge'ez. Africa's first and greatest Christian Kingdom. Now is modern day Ethiopia. An important East African center of trade that controlled a trading port on the Red Sea. In the 300s, King Ezana converted to Christianity and made it the official religion here. In the 600s the Muslims conquered the trading ports and gained control of the Red Sea. This ended the trade that had given the place its power and wealth.
steplike ridges constructed on mountain slopes which helped the soil retain water and prevented it from being washed downhill in heavy rains
The Aksum language - one of the few written languages of ancient Africa.
-developed a written language
- minted its own coins
-developed irrigation canals/dams
- invented terrace farming ----
A towering stone pillar, such as those erected by Aksumites as monuments or tomb markers.
Pillars of Aksum
The Aksumites developed a unique stele architecture that used no mortar on the stones used to construct vast palaces and public buildings. They carved the stones to fit together tightly
When King Ezana was a child he was educated by a young captured Christian man. When Ezana finally became ruler of Aksum, he converted to Christianity and established it as the kingdom's official religion. The establishment of Christianity was the longest lasting achievement of the Aksumites. Today, Ethiopia, where Aksum was located, is home to millions of Christians.
The Fall of Aksum
Aksum's cultural and technological achievemnts enabled it to last for 800 years. Then Islamic Invaders conquered surrounding areas. Aksum protected Muhammad's (the founder of Islam) family and followers during their rise to power. Eventually Aksum's trading power was cut off from its major ports and the kingdom declined. To escape the advancing wave of the Islam religion, Aksum's Christian rulers moved their capital over the mountains into what is now Northern Ethiopia. Its new geographic isolation led to its decline as a world power.
This city was Aksum's chief seaport where Aksum traded gold and other items. It was crowded with lots of activity from various merchants (Egypt, Arabia, Persia, India, and the Roman Empire).