Psych Quiz 2
Terms in this set (121)
An adaptive process in which the tendency to perform a particular behaviour is changed by experience.
The behavioural change produced by the internal changes brought about by learning.
Any response by which an organism directs appropriate sensory organs (eyes, ears, nose) toward the source of a novel stimulus.
The simplest form of learning; learning not to respond to an unimportant event that occurs repeatedly
The process by which a response normally elicited by one stimulus (the unconditional stimulus or UCS) comes to be controlled by another stimulus (the conditional stimulus or CS) as well.
unconditional stimulus (UCS)
In classical conditioning, a stimulus, such as food, that naturally elicits a reflexive response, such as salivation
unconditional response (UCR)
In classical conditioning, a response, such as salivation, that is naturally elicited by the UCS.
conditional stimulus (CS)
In classical conditioning, a stimulus that, because of its repeated association with the UCS, eventually elicits a conditional response (CR).
conditional response (CR)
In classical conditioning, the response elicited
by the CS.
In classical conditioning, the time during which a CR first appears and increases in frequency.
In classical conditioning, the elimination of a response that occurs when the CS is repeatedly presented without being followed by the UCS.
After an interval of time, the reappearance of a response that had previously been extinguished.
In classical conditioning, CRs elicited by stimuli that resemble the CS used in training.
In classical conditioning, the appearance of a CR when one stimulus is presented (the CS+) but not another (the CS )
Unreasonable fear of specific objects or situations, such as insects, animals, or enclosed spaces, learned through classical conditioning.
The prevention of or attenuation in learning that occurs to a neutral CS when it is conditioned in the presence of a previously conditioned stimulus.
inhibitory conditional response
A response tendency conditioned to a signal that predicts the absence of the UCS; generally not observed directly but assessed though other tests.
excitatory conditional response
A response tendency conditioned to a signal that the UCS is about to occur. This is the type of CR exemplified by Pavlov s salivation response.
A form of learning in which behaviour is affected by its consequences. Favourable consequences strengthen the behaviour and
unfavourable consequences weaken the behaviour
law of effect
Thorndike s idea that the consequences of a behaviour determine whether it is likely to be repeated
An apparatus in which an animal s behaviour can be easily observed, manipulated, and automatically recorded.
A mechanical device connected to an operant chamber for the purpose of recording operant responses as they occur in time.
In operant conditioning, the stimulus that sets
the occasion for responding because, in the past, a behaviour has produced certain consequences in the presence of that stimulus.
The relation among discriminative stimuli,
behaviour, and the consequences of that behaviour. A motivated organism emits a specific response in the presence of a discriminative stimulus because, in the past, that response has been reinforced only when the discriminative stimulus is present.
An increase in the frequency of a response that is regularly and reliably followed by an appetitive stimulus.
An increase in the frequency of a response that is regularly and reliably followed by the termination of an aversive stimulus.
A decrease in the frequency of a response that is regularly and reliably followed by an aversive stimulus.
A decrease in the frequency of a response that is regularly and reliably followed by the termination of an appetitive stimulus.
A decrease in the frequency of a previously reinforced response because it is no longer followed by a reinforcer
The reinforcement of behaviour that successively approximates the desired response until that response is fully acquired.
The occasional reinforcement of a particular
behaviour; produces responding that is more resistant to extinction
A schedule of reinforcement in which reinforcement occurs only after a fixed number of responses have been made since the previous reinforcement (or the start of the session
A schedule of reinforcement similar to a fixed ratio schedule but characterized by a variable response requirement having
a particular mean.
A schedule of reinforcement in which the first
response that is made after a fixed interval of time since the previous reinforcement (or the start of the session) is reinforced.
A schedule of reinforcement similar to a fixed interval schedule but characterized by a variable time requirement having a particular mean.
In operant conditioning, the occurrence of responding when a stimulus similar (but not identical) to the discriminative stimulus is present
In operant conditioning, responding only when a specific discriminative stimulus is present but not when similar stimuli are present
A biologically significant appetitive stimulus, such as food or water.
A biologically significant aversive stimulus, such as pain
conditioned (or secondary) reinforcer (or punisher
A stimulus that acquires its reinforcing (or punishing) properties through association with
a primary reinforcer (or punisher). Sometimes referred to as a secondary reinforcer (or punisher).
An operant response acquired through negative reinforcement that terminates an aversive stimulus
An operant response acquired through negative reinforcement that prevents an aversive stimulus from occurring.
conditioned flavour-aversion learning
A type of learning in which a substance is avoided because its flavour has been associated with illness
The study of how drugs influence behaviour;
combines the principles of operant conditioning and the principles of drug action.
The cognitive processes of encoding, storing, and retrieving information.
The process by which sensory information is converted into a form that can be used by the brain s memory system.
The process of maintaining information in memory.
The active processes of locating and using stored information
Memory in which representations of the physical features of a stimulus are stored for very brief durations
An immediate memory for stimuli that have just been perceived. It is limited in terms of both capacity (7 ± 2 chunks of information) and duration (less than 20 seconds).
Memory in which information is represented on a permanent or near-permanent basis.
A form of sensory memory that holds a brief visual image of a scene that has just been perceived; also known as visible persistence
A form of sensory memory for sounds that have just been perceived.
Memory for new information and information retrieved from long-term memory; used in this text as another name for short-term memory.
The tendency to remember initial information. In the memorization of a list of words, the primacy effect is evidenced by better recall of
the words early in the list.
The tendency to recall later information. In the memorization of a list of words, the recency effect is evidenced by better recall of the last words in the list.
A process by which information is simplified by rules, which make it easily remembered once the rules are learned. For example, the
string of letters GSTCBCRCMP are easier to remember if a person learns the rule that organizes them into smaller chunks : GST, CBC, and RCMP.
phonological short-term memory
Short-term memory for verbal information.
An unvoiced speech utterance.
An inability to remember words that are heard,
although they usually can be understood and responded to appropriately. This disability is caused by damage to Wernicke s and Broca s areas.
The process by which information in short-term memory changes to long-term memory, presumably because of physical changes that occur in neurons in the brain.
The loss of the ability to retrieve memories of one's past, particularly memories of episodic or autobiographical events.
The rote repetition of information; repeating a
given item over and over again.
The processing of information on a meaningful
level, such as forming associations, attending to the meaning of the material, thinking about it, and so on.
The analysis of the superficial characteristics of a stimulus, such as its size or shape.
The analysis of the complex characteristics of a stimulus, such as its meaning or its relationship to other stimuli.
Practising or rehearsing information through either shallow or deep processing.
The formation of memories of events and experiences with little or no attention or effort.
The principle that how we encode information determines our ability to retrieve it later.
A special technique or strategy consciously employed in an attempt to improve memory.
method of loci
A mnemonic system in which items to be remembered are mentally associated with specific physical locations or landmarks
A mnemonic system in which items to be remembered are associated with a set of mental pegs that one already has in memory,
such as key words of a rhyme.
A mnemonic system in which items to be remembered are linked together by a story.
A type of long-term memory that serves as a record of our life s experiences.
A type of long-term memory that contains data, facts, and other information, including vocabulary.
Memory that can be described verbally and of which a person is therefore aware.
Memory that cannot be described verbally and of which a person is therefore not aware.
A disorder caused by brain damage that disrupts a person s ability to form new long-term memories of events that occur after
the time of the brain damage.
A neuron that becomes active when the animal is in a particular location in the environment; most typically found in the hippocampal formation.
An occasional problem with retrieval of
information that we are sure we know but cannot immediately remember
Contextual variables, including physical objects or verbal stimuli, that improve the ability to recall information from memory
Interference in recall that occurs when recently
learned information disrupts our ability to remember older information.
Interference in recall that occurs when previously learned information disrupts our ability to remember newer information.
Memories established by events that are highly surprising and personally of consequence.
A category of objects or situations that share some common attributes.
A category of objects or situations defined by listing their common essential characteristics, as dictionary definitions do.
A category of objects or situations based on people s perceptions and interactions with things in the world; based on exemplars.
A memory of particular examples of objects or situations that are used as the basis of classifying objects or situations into concepts.
A concept that makes important distinctions between different categories.
A concept that refers to collections of basic-level concepts.
A concept that refers to types of items within a
Inferring specific instances from general principles or rules.
A mental construction based on physical reality that is used to solve problems of logical deduction.
Inferring general principles or rules from specific facts
A procedure that consists of a series of steps that will solve a specific type of problem.
A general rule that guides decision making
A general heuristic method of problem solving that involves looking for differences between the current state and the goal state
and seeking ways to reduce the differences.
The ability to interact behaviourally with objects while remaining consciously unaware of them.
The process that controls our awareness of, and readiness to respond to, particular categories of stimuli or stimuli in a particular
A task that requires a person to listen to one of two different messages being presented simultaneously, one to each ear, through
The act of continuously repeating verbal material as soon as it is heard.
Failure to detect a change when vision is interrupted by a saccade or an artificially produced obstruction
Failure to perceive an event when attention is
A language disturbance that includes an inability to comprehend speech or to produce meaningful speech without affecting the ability to repeat speech and to learn new sequences of words; caused by brain damage that isolates the brain s speech mechanisms from other parts of the brain.
The inability of a person who is not blind to recognize the identity of an object visually; caused by damage to the visual association
A surgical procedure that severs the corpus callosum, thus abolishing the direct connections between the cortex of the two
The tendency of a person to perform a
behaviour suggested by the hypnotist some time after the person has left the hypnotic state.
A failure to remember what occurred during
hypnosis; induced by suggestions made during hypnosis.
An instrument that records changes in physiological processes such as brain activity, heart rate, and breathing.
The measurement and graphical presentation of the electrical activity of muscles, recorded by means of electrodes attached to the skin above them.
The measurement and graphical presentation of the electrical activity of the heart, recorded by means of electrodes attached to the skin.
The measurement and graphical presentation of the electrical activity caused by movements of the eye, recorded by means of
electrodes attached to the skin adjacent to the eye.
The irregular, high-frequency activity of the electroencephalogram, usually indicating a state of alertness or arousal.
Rhythmical, medium-frequency activity of the electroencephalogram, usually indicating a state of quiet relaxation.
EEG activity of 3.5 7.5 Hz; occurs during the transition between sleep and wakefulness.
The rhythmical activity of the electroencephalogram, having a frequency of less than 3.5 Hz, indicating deep (slow-wave) sleep.
Sleep other than REM sleep, characterized by regular, slow waves on the electroencephalograph.
rapid eye movement (REM) sleep
A period of sleep during which dreaming,
rapid eye movements, and muscular paralysis occur and the EEG shows beta activity.
A daily rhythmical change in behaviour or physiological process.
basic rest-activity cycle (BRAC)
A 90-minute cycle (in humans) of waxing
and waning alertness controlled by a biological clock in the pons; during sleep, it controls cycles of REM sleep and slow-wave sleep.
A region at the base of the brain just in front of the hypothalamus; contains neurons that appear to control the occurrence of slow-wave sleep.