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26 terms

Chpt 3 The Living Units

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Organelle
Highly organized intracellular structure that performs a specific (metabolic) function for the cell
Cell
The basic structural and functional unity of living organisms
What functions do cells in the body have in common
Ability ot metabolize, to reproduce, to grow, to respond to a stimulus, and move
Plasma membrane
External boundary of cell; regulates flow of materials into and out of the cell; site of cell signaling
Lysome
Contains digestive enzymes of many varieties; "suicide sac" of the cell
Mitochondria
Scattered throughout the cell; major site of ATP synthesis
Microvilli
Slender extensions of the plasma membrane that increase its surface area
Inclusions
Stored gycogen granules, crystals, pigments, and so on
Golgi apparatus
Membranous system consisting of flattened sacs and vesicles' packages proteins for export
Nucleus
Control center of the cell; necessary for cell division and cell life
Centrioles
Two rod shaped bodies near the nucleus' direct formation of the mitotic spindle
Nucleolus
Dense, darkly straining nuclear body; packaging site for ribosomes
Microfiloments
Contractile elements of the cytoskeleton
ER or Rough Endoplamic Retriculum
Membranous system; involved in intracellular transport of proteins and synthesis of membrane lipids
Ribosomes
Attached to membrane systems or scattered in the cytoplasm; synthesize proteins
Chromatin or Chromatin Threads
Threadlike structures in the nucleus; contain genetic material (DNA)
Peroxisome
Site of free radial detoxification
Squamous epithelium
Cells fit closely together like floor tiles; lining or covering tissue
Sperm
Has a tail or flagellum; allow sperm to propel itself to an egg
Smooth Muscle
Cells have an elongated shape; a long axis allows a greater degree of shortening
Red Blood Cells
A nucleate ( or no nucleus) disc-shaped; large surface area; more "room" to carry hemoglobin or oxygen
Interphase
Cell appears to look somewhat normal under microscope. DNA is replicating, cell chromosomes are replicating
Prophase
DNA is replicated, chromosomes duplicated into two sister chromatids, joined by a centromere
Metaphase
Duplicated chromosomes line up at equator of nucleus
Anaphase
Centromeres divid, sister chromatids are now splitting
Telophase
Nuclear envelope develops around each sister chromatid (chromosome), chromosomes uncoil and become chromatin