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Highly organized intracellular structure that performs a specific (metabolic) function for the cell


The basic structural and functional unity of living organisms

What functions do cells in the body have in common

Ability ot metabolize, to reproduce, to grow, to respond to a stimulus, and move

Plasma membrane

External boundary of cell; regulates flow of materials into and out of the cell; site of cell signaling


Contains digestive enzymes of many varieties; "suicide sac" of the cell


Scattered throughout the cell; major site of ATP synthesis


Slender extensions of the plasma membrane that increase its surface area


Stored gycogen granules, crystals, pigments, and so on

Golgi apparatus

Membranous system consisting of flattened sacs and vesicles' packages proteins for export


Control center of the cell; necessary for cell division and cell life


Two rod shaped bodies near the nucleus' direct formation of the mitotic spindle


Dense, darkly straining nuclear body; packaging site for ribosomes


Contractile elements of the cytoskeleton

ER or Rough Endoplamic Retriculum

Membranous system; involved in intracellular transport of proteins and synthesis of membrane lipids


Attached to membrane systems or scattered in the cytoplasm; synthesize proteins

Chromatin or Chromatin Threads

Threadlike structures in the nucleus; contain genetic material (DNA)


Site of free radial detoxification

Squamous epithelium

Cells fit closely together like floor tiles; lining or covering tissue


Has a tail or flagellum; allow sperm to propel itself to an egg

Smooth Muscle

Cells have an elongated shape; a long axis allows a greater degree of shortening

Red Blood Cells

A nucleate ( or no nucleus) disc-shaped; large surface area; more "room" to carry hemoglobin or oxygen


Cell appears to look somewhat normal under microscope. DNA is replicating, cell chromosomes are replicating


DNA is replicated, chromosomes duplicated into two sister chromatids, joined by a centromere


Duplicated chromosomes line up at equator of nucleus


Centromeres divid, sister chromatids are now splitting


Nuclear envelope develops around each sister chromatid (chromosome), chromosomes uncoil and become chromatin

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