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Jean Jacques Rousseau

-early 18th century
-He believed in the "social contract"

Denis Diderot

-early 18th century
-He edited the "Encyclopedia"


-"age of reason"
- where they put all their new ideas into reason

Scientific Revolution

-change in science
-came before the enlightenment
-example: Kepler came up wit the next step to destroy the Ptolemaic System



John Locke

-early 17th century
-Natural Rights
-his ideas were the basis for democracy

Isaac Newton

-scientific revolution
-middle of 17th century
-3 laws of motion
-discovered gravity

Baron de Montesquieu

-late 17th century
-political philosopher
-made the system of checks and balances


-late 17th century
-religious philosopher
-treaties on toleration= strong advocate for religious toleration

Adam Smith

-early 18th century
-father of economics
-supply and demand
-believed in laissez-faire


-let people do what they want

Jeremy Bentham

-early 18th century
-believed in natural law and natural rights
-believed in the separation of church and state
-freedom of expression
-very radical
-believed in women's rights

Cesare Beccaria

-early 18th century
-proposed a new approach to justice
-crime and punishment

social contract

-relationship between government and people

Mary Wollstonecraft

-late 18th century
-women's rights advocate
-men and women should be treated equally

John Wesley

-18th century
-founder of Methodism
-put more meaning and structure into church

James Cook

-scientific revolution
-early 18th century
-Captain of British Navy
-he was an explorer and a cartographer

François Viéte

-scientific revolution
-early 16th century
-expanded algebra into a new, modern algebra
-invented use of variables representing letters

Simon Stevin

-scientific revolution
-early 16th century
-first person to use decimals
-military engineer

John Napier

-scientific revolution
-late 16th century
-famous Scottish mathematician, physicist, astronomer, and astrologer
-created the logarithm


-scientific revolution
-late 15th century
-believed that his idea of heliocentric was better than the Ptolemaic system

Johannes Kepler

-scientific revolution
-late 16th century
-Kepler's law: planets orbits are not circular

Andreas Vesulius

-scientific revolution
-early 16th century
-study in the depth of the human anatomy

William Harvey

-scientific revolution
-late 16th century
-understood human anatomy by dissecting human bodies
-discovered circulation of blood
-found that the heart was the starting point for blood

Maria Winkelmann

-scientific revolution
-late 17th century
-discovered the first comet
-men and women should be equal
-the most famous female astronomer


-scientific revolution
-believed that the sun was the center of the world and immovable
-believed that the earth is not t he center of the world and not moving

Francis Bacon

-scientific revolution
-late 16th century
-believed in inductive reasoning
-proceeding from the particular to the general

Scientific Method

-a systematic procedure for collection and analyzing evidence

René Descartes

-scientific revolution
-17th century
-"father of modern rationalism"
-belief that reason is the main source of knowledge
-"I think, therefore I am"

Margaret Cavendish

-scientific revolution
-critical of the growing belief that humans were the masters of nature, through science


-believed that before society was organized human life was "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short"
-believed that an absolute monarch was needed to form a state, not a state of nature


-the greatest astronomer in antiquity
-invented the Ptolemaic system

Ptolemaic System

-the sphere moves itself and gives motion to the other spheres
-beyond the tenth sphere is heaven
-where God resides

Revolution, the song. What is it about?

-John Lennon's response to the Vietnam war
-political song
-this song is about not being as violent

Robert Boyle

-Scientific Revolution
-17th century
-Boyle's law
-conducted experiments in chemistry

Antoine Lavoisier

-Scientific Revolution
-18th century
-developed a system for naming chemicals
-founder of Modern Chemistry

Marie Therese de Geoffrin

-late 17th century
-held salons in her home
-promoted discussion of philosophes and spread enlightenment ideas

James I

-believed in divine right

divine right

-is the belief that God chose you to be the ruler

Charles I

-believed in divine right
-passed the Petition of Rights in 1628

Petition of Rights

1. habeas corpus- you cant imprison without the right to trial
2. no taxation without consent of the Parliament
3. no quartering soldiers without consent

The Revolution

-Cavaliers vs. Roundheads
-executed Charles I and Oliver Cromwell became the military dictator

Oliver Cromwell

-set up a military dictatorship
-won the English Civil War and then took over
-disbanded Parliament

what does abjuration mean

to renounce under oath; fore swear

what does enlightened despot mean?

rulers who force people to follow the rules

4 examples of an enlightened despot

1. Frederick II
2. Catherine II
3. Joseph II
4. Charles III

Charles II

-restored the Stuart Monarchy
-agreed with the Magna Carta and the Petition of Rights

James II

-believed in the Divine Right
-brother to Charles II
-Catholic Monarchy

Glorious Revolution

-William and Mary were invited to invade England
-afraid that the English church would turn to Catholicism
-William and Mary became monarchs of England

William and Mary

-signed the Bill of Rights and the Toleration act

Toleration act

-freedom of worship for protestants



Johann Sebastian Bach

-the greatest composer

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