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53 terms

History Ch. 14 & 17 test

Jean Jacques Rousseau
-early 18th century
-He believed in the "social contract"
Denis Diderot
-early 18th century
-He edited the "Encyclopedia"
-"age of reason"
- where they put all their new ideas into reason
Scientific Revolution
-change in science
-came before the enlightenment
-example: Kepler came up wit the next step to destroy the Ptolemaic System
John Locke
-early 17th century
-Natural Rights
-his ideas were the basis for democracy
Isaac Newton
-scientific revolution
-middle of 17th century
-3 laws of motion
-discovered gravity
Baron de Montesquieu
-late 17th century
-political philosopher
-made the system of checks and balances
-late 17th century
-religious philosopher
-treaties on toleration= strong advocate for religious toleration
Adam Smith
-early 18th century
-father of economics
-supply and demand
-believed in laissez-faire
-let people do what they want
Jeremy Bentham
-early 18th century
-believed in natural law and natural rights
-believed in the separation of church and state
-freedom of expression
-very radical
-believed in women's rights
Cesare Beccaria
-early 18th century
-proposed a new approach to justice
-crime and punishment
social contract
-relationship between government and people
Mary Wollstonecraft
-late 18th century
-women's rights advocate
-men and women should be treated equally
John Wesley
-18th century
-founder of Methodism
-put more meaning and structure into church
James Cook
-scientific revolution
-early 18th century
-Captain of British Navy
-he was an explorer and a cartographer
François Viéte
-scientific revolution
-early 16th century
-expanded algebra into a new, modern algebra
-invented use of variables representing letters
Simon Stevin
-scientific revolution
-early 16th century
-first person to use decimals
-military engineer
John Napier
-scientific revolution
-late 16th century
-famous Scottish mathematician, physicist, astronomer, and astrologer
-created the logarithm
-scientific revolution
-late 15th century
-believed that his idea of heliocentric was better than the Ptolemaic system
Johannes Kepler
-scientific revolution
-late 16th century
-Kepler's law: planets orbits are not circular
Andreas Vesulius
-scientific revolution
-early 16th century
-study in the depth of the human anatomy
William Harvey
-scientific revolution
-late 16th century
-understood human anatomy by dissecting human bodies
-discovered circulation of blood
-found that the heart was the starting point for blood
Maria Winkelmann
-scientific revolution
-late 17th century
-discovered the first comet
-men and women should be equal
-the most famous female astronomer
-scientific revolution
-believed that the sun was the center of the world and immovable
-believed that the earth is not t he center of the world and not moving
Francis Bacon
-scientific revolution
-late 16th century
-believed in inductive reasoning
-proceeding from the particular to the general
Scientific Method
-a systematic procedure for collection and analyzing evidence
René Descartes
-scientific revolution
-17th century
-"father of modern rationalism"
-belief that reason is the main source of knowledge
-"I think, therefore I am"
Margaret Cavendish
-scientific revolution
-critical of the growing belief that humans were the masters of nature, through science
-believed that before society was organized human life was "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short"
-believed that an absolute monarch was needed to form a state, not a state of nature
-the greatest astronomer in antiquity
-invented the Ptolemaic system
Ptolemaic System
-the sphere moves itself and gives motion to the other spheres
-beyond the tenth sphere is heaven
-where God resides
Revolution, the song. What is it about?
-John Lennon's response to the Vietnam war
-political song
-this song is about not being as violent
Robert Boyle
-Scientific Revolution
-17th century
-Boyle's law
-conducted experiments in chemistry
Antoine Lavoisier
-Scientific Revolution
-18th century
-developed a system for naming chemicals
-founder of Modern Chemistry
Marie Therese de Geoffrin
-late 17th century
-held salons in her home
-promoted discussion of philosophes and spread enlightenment ideas
James I
-believed in divine right
divine right
-is the belief that God chose you to be the ruler
Charles I
-believed in divine right
-passed the Petition of Rights in 1628
Petition of Rights
1. habeas corpus- you cant imprison without the right to trial
2. no taxation without consent of the Parliament
3. no quartering soldiers without consent
The Revolution
-Cavaliers vs. Roundheads
-executed Charles I and Oliver Cromwell became the military dictator
Oliver Cromwell
-set up a military dictatorship
-won the English Civil War and then took over
-disbanded Parliament
what does abjuration mean
to renounce under oath; fore swear
what does enlightened despot mean?
rulers who force people to follow the rules
4 examples of an enlightened despot
1. Frederick II
2. Catherine II
3. Joseph II
4. Charles III
Charles II
-restored the Stuart Monarchy
-agreed with the Magna Carta and the Petition of Rights
James II
-believed in the Divine Right
-brother to Charles II
-Catholic Monarchy
Glorious Revolution
-William and Mary were invited to invade England
-afraid that the English church would turn to Catholicism
-William and Mary became monarchs of England
William and Mary
-signed the Bill of Rights and the Toleration act
Toleration act
-freedom of worship for protestants
Johann Sebastian Bach
-the greatest composer