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external anatomy and digestive system


a mammal is an animal which has hair and ammary glands, which secrete mile. Mammals are warm blooded, have a four chambered heart and generally bear young alive.


Vessels that carry blood away from the heart. Typically, but not always, arteries carry oxygenated blood. The exception is the pulmonary artery


Vessels that carry blood to the heart. Gereally veins carry deoxygenated blood. The exception is the pulmonary vein.

Thoracic cavity

The body cavity housing the heart and lungs

Abdomical cavity

The body cavity which contains most of the digestive organs

Nictiting membrane

A translucent "third eyelid" which serves to moisten and clean the eye by moving across it


A posture characterized by the weight of the foot being carried on the third and fourth digits of the foot. The feet are hoofed. This is contrasted with the plantigrade stance where the weight is carried over the whole lower surface of the foot.


A thin embryonic layer of skin covering the fetus. It is replaced with hair

Masseter muscle

This muscle is located on the curve of the jawbone, and aids in suckling mild

Parotid gland

A granular appearing salivary gland located behind the massester muscle. Saliva is transported to the mouth via the parotid duct

Submaxillary gland

A salivary gland lovated under the massestter muscle. It is small and bean shaped


The projection in the back of the mouth which covers the glottis when swallowing to prevent food from passing into the trachea


The opening which leads to the trachea


Small projections on the side of the tongue which aid in suckling


Commonly called the windpipe, this tube has catilaginous rings to hold it open. It carries air to the lungs


An enlarged structure located just above the rachea, it contains the vocal cords, which are responsible for producing sound

Thyroid gland

A small, highly vascularized gland that is important in regulating metabolism. The thyroid gland produces thyroxin, a hormone which stimulates growth.

Thymus gland

These glands are part of the lymphatic system. They produce lymphocytes and provide immunity. They diminish with age and are absent in adults

Pariental peritoneum

The membrane surrounding the heart. It forms a fluid filled pericardial sac providing protective cushioning


It is collapsible tube without carilaginous rings. The esophagus carries food from the mouth to the stomach by peristalsis


A shet-llike muscle which separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities. It aids in inhalation and exhalation


The liver cleans the blood of toxic material. It also produces bile, which aids in fat digestion

Gall bladder

stores excess bile


produces red blood cells and is repository for worn out red blood cells


Both an endocrine and exocrine gland that provides digestive exzymes as well as insulin to regulate sugar levels

Pyloric sphinter

A circular muscle at the junction of the stomach and small intestince that controls movement of food into the small intestine


Fold on the inside of the stomach wich increase surgace area


Finger-like projections which increase surface area of the small intestine for absorption of digested materials


A blind pouch at the juntion of the small and large intestines. It contains bacteria which aid in the digestion of plnt material


Kidneys are located outside the peritoneum on the dorsal wall. They regulate water and salt concentration and remove waste in the form of urine


The duct which carries urine from the kidney to the bladder


The duct which carries urine from the bladder to the outside on the body. It also functions as part of the reproductive system in males as it also carries sperm to the outside

Allontoic bladder

Stores urine temporarily until it is removed via the allantoic stalk to the placenta. The urethra becomes functional after birth


Area of gamet (egg) production in the female


A muscular organ in which young develop until birth. It forms the placenta along with extra embryonic membranes. Pigs have a bipartit uterus, an adaptation which allows for multiple births


Site of gamete (sperm) production in males. Depending on the age of the pig, they may be anyuwhere from below the kidneys to the scrotum

Ductus derens

carry sperm from the epididymus to the urethra


Sperm collecting tissue around the testes


Copulatory organ of the male, through which the urethra carries sperm to the outside of the body. Not the close association of the excretory and reproductive systems in the male


Numerous functions especially in metabolism. Regulate glucose levels in the blood by converting glucose to glycogen and vice versa. May synthesize glucose or glycogen from other substances. Detoxifies the body by storing harmful chemicals. Stores vitamins and iron, makes blood proteins and red blood cells (int he fetus). Produces bile

Gall Bladder

Stores bile. Cystic duct carries bile from liver to gall bladder. Bile transfered to the duodenum by cystic ducts


Maintains a large blood supply and recycles hemoglobin from fractured erythrocytes


Mixed food (mechanical digesition). Also produces digestive enzymes which, in the presence of HCL, begin the breakdow of proteins


Exocrines: Produce digestive enzymes
Endocrines: produce insulin, which increases rate at which glucose is removed from blood and used or stored by cells to produce glucogen, which has effects opposite to insulin

Small Intestine

Responsibile for the further digestion of food and absorption of nutrients

Large intestine

Responsible for absorption of water from undigested food and elimination of solid wast

Thymus gland

Lyphatic syste. Plays an important part in development of immunologic capacities by production of lymphacytes and in the maturatio of lyphatic system

Thyroid gland

regulates metabolism. Produced thyroxin, which can increase metabolic rates and, consequently, increase body temperature


A cartilagenous projection above the glottis. During swallowing it closes over the glottis and prevents food from entering the trachea


a region where the digestive and respiratory systems cross. Not a visable structure. The pharynx is divided into two regions, doral and the soft palate is the Nasopharynx and ventral to the soft palate is the oropharynx

Drains oxygen poor blood from the upper body


Brings oxygen poor blood from the lower body


Blood from the pre and postcaca goes

into the right atrium

After the right atrium where does the blood go?

Right ventricle

Right ventricle to

pulmonary trunk

Pulmonary trunk to ____? why

To the lungs for oxygenation

In the lungs blood travels through

capillaries and lung tissue

In the lungs ____ diffuses in the blood and ____ deffuses out of the blood

Oxygen, CO2

Oxygen rich blood returns to the heart through the

Pulmonary veins

Pulmonary vein to

the left atrum

Left atrum to

the left ventricle

The left ventricle ____ and ocygen rich blood travels through the _____ and then _______

contracts, aorta, throughout the body

The right side of the hear contains ________ blood


The left side of the heart contains ________ blood


Arteries carry ______ blood

oxygenated (away from the heart)

Veins carry _______ blood

Deoxygenated (to the heart)

What artery carries deoxygenated blood?

Pulmonary artery

What vein carries oxygenated blood?

Pulmonary vein

Why is the fetal pigs circulation different from the adult

it is in a fluid fuild environment and is not yet using its lungs

____ and _____ are supplied, and _____ is removed from the fetal pig via the _______

oxygen and nutrients, CO2, placenta

Where is the blood oxygenated in the fetal pig?


fetal: _______ dranis blood from the upper body and the _______ drans blood from the lower body

Precava, postcava

Fetal: blood enter the ____

right atrium

Fetal: After blood goes through the right atruim it _____________________

is immediately shunted to the left atrium through an opening called the foramen ovale

Fetal: left atrium to the _______

Left ventrical

Fetal: not all blood makes it to the foramen ovale. Where does it go?

some travels to the right ventricle and into the pulonary trunk

Fetal: from pulmonary trunk to

the arota through a vessel called the ductus arteriosus

Umbilical vein travels from the placenta through a duct called

the ductus venosus

Fetal: from ductus venosus to

post cava

How does fetal pig get oxygenated blood?

The umbilical vein: the fetus' blood travels through a capilary network in the placenta and absorbs oxygen from the mother's blood

Oxygenated blood in the fetal pig joins the


In the fetal pig when the blood from the placenta joins the postcava and enters the atrium it is

already partially oxygenated

How does blood get from the fetal pig to the placenta?

Through the aorta to the unbical arteries that lead to the placenta where oxygen is absorbed and CO2 is removed

What happens to a fetal pig at birth?

Changes in pressure cause a flab of tissue to close the foramen ovale in the heart, separating ocygen poor and oxygen rich blood, Lungs start to function (supplying oxygen and removing CO2), the ductus arteriosus and ductus venosus close and become ligaments, the umbilical arteris and veins collapse.

What happens to the ductus arteriosus and the ductus venosus at birth?

they turn into ligaments

What are the functions of the skeleton?

Support body
Allow flexibility
Protect organs

How does the shape of the vertebral column in cats and human differ?

Humans have thicker vertebre wich hold the spine upright. Cats spine curves down


towards the head


towards tail






towards spinal column


towards belly surface


divides pig in half longitudinaly

brachio refers to


Cephalo refers to


Does the fetal pig have teeth?



nipples (both male and female have)

How many umbelical veins and arteries

one vein two arteries

What removes fetal waste?

allontoic stalk

What is the second opening on female pigs called

urogenital opening

What is the female genital projection called?

genital papilla

What is the skin called


Site of active cell division


What three things are located in the dermis?

sweat glands
oil glands
and hair follicles

membrane that surrounds the organs of the abdominal cavitiy


gulbladder-> small intestine

cyctic duct

Loops of the small intestine


Blood travels through ______ in the lungs


capillaries lead into small veins called


arteries branch into smaller arteries called


What vein follows the bile duct

hepatic portal vein

Veins located under the collar bone

subclavian veins

Pumps blood out of left ventricle


Where does the right heart pump blood to? through what

pumps to lungs through pulmonary artery

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