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115 terms

Fetal pig dissection

external anatomy and digestive system
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Mammal
a mammal is an animal which has hair and ammary glands, which secrete mile. Mammals are warm blooded, have a four chambered heart and generally bear young alive.
Arteries
Vessels that carry blood away from the heart. Typically, but not always, arteries carry oxygenated blood. The exception is the pulmonary artery
Veins
Vessels that carry blood to the heart. Gereally veins carry deoxygenated blood. The exception is the pulmonary vein.
Thoracic cavity
The body cavity housing the heart and lungs
Abdomical cavity
The body cavity which contains most of the digestive organs
Nictiting membrane
A translucent "third eyelid" which serves to moisten and clean the eye by moving across it
Unguligrade
A posture characterized by the weight of the foot being carried on the third and fourth digits of the foot. The feet are hoofed. This is contrasted with the plantigrade stance where the weight is carried over the whole lower surface of the foot.
Periderm
A thin embryonic layer of skin covering the fetus. It is replaced with hair
Masseter muscle
This muscle is located on the curve of the jawbone, and aids in suckling mild
Parotid gland
A granular appearing salivary gland located behind the massester muscle. Saliva is transported to the mouth via the parotid duct
Submaxillary gland
A salivary gland lovated under the massestter muscle. It is small and bean shaped
Epiglottis
The projection in the back of the mouth which covers the glottis when swallowing to prevent food from passing into the trachea
Glottis
The opening which leads to the trachea
Papillae
Small projections on the side of the tongue which aid in suckling
Trachea
Commonly called the windpipe, this tube has catilaginous rings to hold it open. It carries air to the lungs
larynx
An enlarged structure located just above the rachea, it contains the vocal cords, which are responsible for producing sound
Thyroid gland
A small, highly vascularized gland that is important in regulating metabolism. The thyroid gland produces thyroxin, a hormone which stimulates growth.
Thymus gland
These glands are part of the lymphatic system. They produce lymphocytes and provide immunity. They diminish with age and are absent in adults
Pariental peritoneum
The membrane surrounding the heart. It forms a fluid filled pericardial sac providing protective cushioning
Esophagus
It is collapsible tube without carilaginous rings. The esophagus carries food from the mouth to the stomach by peristalsis
Diaphragm
A shet-llike muscle which separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities. It aids in inhalation and exhalation
Liver
The liver cleans the blood of toxic material. It also produces bile, which aids in fat digestion
Gall bladder
stores excess bile
Spleen
produces red blood cells and is repository for worn out red blood cells
Pancreas
Both an endocrine and exocrine gland that provides digestive exzymes as well as insulin to regulate sugar levels
Pyloric sphinter
A circular muscle at the junction of the stomach and small intestince that controls movement of food into the small intestine
Rugae
Fold on the inside of the stomach wich increase surgace area
Villi
Finger-like projections which increase surface area of the small intestine for absorption of digested materials
Caecul
A blind pouch at the juntion of the small and large intestines. It contains bacteria which aid in the digestion of plnt material
Kidney
Kidneys are located outside the peritoneum on the dorsal wall. They regulate water and salt concentration and remove waste in the form of urine
Ureter
The duct which carries urine from the kidney to the bladder
Urethra
The duct which carries urine from the bladder to the outside on the body. It also functions as part of the reproductive system in males as it also carries sperm to the outside
Allontoic bladder
Stores urine temporarily until it is removed via the allantoic stalk to the placenta. The urethra becomes functional after birth
Ovaries
Area of gamet (egg) production in the female
Uterus
A muscular organ in which young develop until birth. It forms the placenta along with extra embryonic membranes. Pigs have a bipartit uterus, an adaptation which allows for multiple births
Testes
Site of gamete (sperm) production in males. Depending on the age of the pig, they may be anyuwhere from below the kidneys to the scrotum
Ductus derens
carry sperm from the epididymus to the urethra
Epididymus
Sperm collecting tissue around the testes
Penis
Copulatory organ of the male, through which the urethra carries sperm to the outside of the body. Not the close association of the excretory and reproductive systems in the male
Liver
Numerous functions especially in metabolism. Regulate glucose levels in the blood by converting glucose to glycogen and vice versa. May synthesize glucose or glycogen from other substances. Detoxifies the body by storing harmful chemicals. Stores vitamins and iron, makes blood proteins and red blood cells (int he fetus). Produces bile
Gall Bladder
Stores bile. Cystic duct carries bile from liver to gall bladder. Bile transfered to the duodenum by cystic ducts
Spleen
Maintains a large blood supply and recycles hemoglobin from fractured erythrocytes
Stomach
Mixed food (mechanical digesition). Also produces digestive enzymes which, in the presence of HCL, begin the breakdow of proteins
Panreau
Exocrines: Produce digestive enzymes
Endocrines: produce insulin, which increases rate at which glucose is removed from blood and used or stored by cells to produce glucogen, which has effects opposite to insulin
Small Intestine
Responsibile for the further digestion of food and absorption of nutrients
Large intestine
Responsible for absorption of water from undigested food and elimination of solid wast
Thymus gland
Lyphatic syste. Plays an important part in development of immunologic capacities by production of lymphacytes and in the maturatio of lyphatic system
Thyroid gland
regulates metabolism. Produced thyroxin, which can increase metabolic rates and, consequently, increase body temperature
Epiglottis
A cartilagenous projection above the glottis. During swallowing it closes over the glottis and prevents food from entering the trachea
Pharynx
a region where the digestive and respiratory systems cross. Not a visable structure. The pharynx is divided into two regions, doral and the soft palate is the Nasopharynx and ventral to the soft palate is the oropharynx
Drains oxygen poor blood from the upper body
Precava
Brings oxygen poor blood from the lower body
Postcava
Blood from the pre and postcaca goes
into the right atrium
After the right atrium where does the blood go?
Right ventricle
Right ventricle to
pulmonary trunk
Pulmonary trunk to ____? why
To the lungs for oxygenation
In the lungs blood travels through
capillaries and lung tissue
In the lungs ____ diffuses in the blood and ____ deffuses out of the blood
Oxygen, CO2
Oxygen rich blood returns to the heart through the
Pulmonary veins
Pulmonary vein to
the left atrum
Left atrum to
the left ventricle
The left ventricle ____ and ocygen rich blood travels through the _____ and then _______
contracts, aorta, throughout the body
The right side of the hear contains ________ blood
Deoxygentated
The left side of the heart contains ________ blood
Oxygenated
Arteries carry ______ blood
oxygenated (away from the heart)
Veins carry _______ blood
Deoxygenated (to the heart)
What artery carries deoxygenated blood?
Pulmonary artery
What vein carries oxygenated blood?
Pulmonary vein
Why is the fetal pigs circulation different from the adult
it is in a fluid fuild environment and is not yet using its lungs
____ and _____ are supplied, and _____ is removed from the fetal pig via the _______
oxygen and nutrients, CO2, placenta
Where is the blood oxygenated in the fetal pig?
Placenta
fetal: _______ dranis blood from the upper body and the _______ drans blood from the lower body
Precava, postcava
Fetal: blood enter the ____
right atrium
Fetal: After blood goes through the right atruim it _____________________
is immediately shunted to the left atrium through an opening called the foramen ovale
Fetal: left atrium to the _______
Left ventrical
Fetal: not all blood makes it to the foramen ovale. Where does it go?
some travels to the right ventricle and into the pulonary trunk
Fetal: from pulmonary trunk to
the arota through a vessel called the ductus arteriosus
Umbilical vein travels from the placenta through a duct called
the ductus venosus
Fetal: from ductus venosus to
post cava
How does fetal pig get oxygenated blood?
The umbilical vein: the fetus' blood travels through a capilary network in the placenta and absorbs oxygen from the mother's blood
Oxygenated blood in the fetal pig joins the
postcava
In the fetal pig when the blood from the placenta joins the postcava and enters the atrium it is
already partially oxygenated
How does blood get from the fetal pig to the placenta?
Through the aorta to the unbical arteries that lead to the placenta where oxygen is absorbed and CO2 is removed
What happens to a fetal pig at birth?
Changes in pressure cause a flab of tissue to close the foramen ovale in the heart, separating ocygen poor and oxygen rich blood, Lungs start to function (supplying oxygen and removing CO2), the ductus arteriosus and ductus venosus close and become ligaments, the umbilical arteris and veins collapse.
What happens to the ductus arteriosus and the ductus venosus at birth?
they turn into ligaments
What are the functions of the skeleton?
Support body
Allow flexibility
Protect organs
How does the shape of the vertebral column in cats and human differ?
Humans have thicker vertebre wich hold the spine upright. Cats spine curves down
Cephalic
towards the head
caudal
towards tail
anterior
front
posterior
back
dorsal
towards spinal column
ventral
towards belly surface
Midline
divides pig in half longitudinaly
brachio refers to
arms
Cephalo refers to
head
Does the fetal pig have teeth?
yes
teats
nipples (both male and female have)
How many umbelical veins and arteries
one vein two arteries
What removes fetal waste?
allontoic stalk
What is the second opening on female pigs called
urogenital opening
What is the female genital projection called?
genital papilla
What is the skin called
integument
Site of active cell division
dermis
What three things are located in the dermis?
sweat glands
oil glands
and hair follicles
membrane that surrounds the organs of the abdominal cavitiy
paritoneum
gulbladder-> small intestine
cyctic duct
Loops of the small intestine
mesentery
Blood travels through ______ in the lungs
capilaries
capillaries lead into small veins called
venules
arteries branch into smaller arteries called
arterioles
What vein follows the bile duct
hepatic portal vein
Veins located under the collar bone
subclavian veins
Pumps blood out of left ventricle
aorta
Where does the right heart pump blood to? through what
pumps to lungs through pulmonary artery