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Protestant Revival

God all-powerful; people could shape their own destiny. Charles Grandison Finney. Lyman Beecher.


did not preach reason and intellect. Escaping the world through your mind. Emerson. Thoreau. Movement inspired by philosophers and writers.

Ralph Waldo Emerson

encouraged people to involve themselves in reforming societies. Transcendentalist; launched American Renaissance

Henry David Thoreau

Wrote Walden. Two years solitary life in Walden Pond.

temperance movement

mid 1800's; encouraged people to drink less alcohol. Preached abstinence. First state to prohibit alcohol was Maine.


refraining from doing something


to separate forcefully by race

Public Education

working and middle classes wanted to reform education for their kids. Quality of teaching was crap. Horace Mann; promoted self-discipline and good citizenship; tax payer financed. Benefit society. School more common in urban North. Girls discouraged to go; whites only.

Reforming Prisons

confined in horrible conditions. Dorothea Dix: Separate mentally ill from criminal element.

utopian communities

get away from urbane and industrialization. religiously oriented. They fell victim to laziness, selfishness, and inter-fighting.

Abolition movement

Worked to end slavery. divided on how women could be involved. Roots in the churches. Idea to send them to Liberia (Western Africa). Opposition in the North: Large, wealthy industrialists. Opposition in the South: Rapid, heretic, killed or hanged.

Frederick Douglass

Wrote North Star. Former slave. Taught to read. Words as well as deed needed to fight slavery.


where slaves wanted to go. Underground Railroad led to here.

William Lloyd Garrison

the "Liberator". American Anti-Slavery Society.

gag rule

Rule used in the House of Representative so that petitions for antislavery could not be read. Southern Congressmen.

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