Mitral Valve Stenosis
Terms in this set (26)
What is mitral valve stenosis?
A narrowing of the heart's mitral valve. The valve becomes stiff or scarred of the valve flaps become partially joined together.
Blood that flows between different chambers of your heart must flow though a what?
The mitral valve allows blood to flow from what to what?
The upper chamber of the heart (left atria) to the lower chamber (left ventricle).
What happens as a result of mitral stenosis?
Less blood flows to the body.
What happens to the upper heart chambers as a result of mitral stenosis?
The upper chamber swells up.
What may collect in the lung tissue (pulmonary edema), making it hard to breath as a result of mitral stenosis?
Blood and fluid
What are some complications as a result of mitral stenosis?
Mitral stenosis can cause the left atrium to work harder to pump blood through the narrowed valve, leading to heart failure and complications such as stroke, arrhythmias (such as atrial fibrillation), fluid buildup in the lungs, and blood clots.
In adults, mitral stenosis can occur most often in people who have had what?
Mitral stenosis is a disease that can develop after what?
An illness with strep throat that was not properly treated.
What is rheumatic fever?
An inflammatory disease that can develop as a complication of inadequately treated strep throat or scarlet fever.
Strep throat and scarlet fever are caused by what?
An infection with group A streptococcus bacteria.
Rheumatic fever is most common in what age of people?
5-15 year old children, though it can develop in younger children and adults.
Is strep throat common or rare in the United States?
Is Rheumatic fever common or rare in the United States?
Rare and is also rare in other developed countries.
Rheumatic fever remains common where?
In developing countries.
Rheumatic fever can cause permanent damage to what?
The heart, including damaged heart valves, and heart failure.
What can treatments of rheumatic fever do?
Reduce tissue damage from inflammation, lessen pain and other symptoms, and prevent the recurrence of rheumatic fever.
Rarely, what other factors can cause mitral stenosis?
-Calcium deposits forming around the mitral valve.
When can symptoms of mitral stenosis appear or worsen?
With exercise or other activity that raises the heart rate.
It what ages will symptoms most often occur for mitral stenosis?
20 and 50.
What are the symptoms of mitral stenosis?
-Chest discomfort that increases with activity.
-Difficulty breathing during or after exercise, or when lying flat.
-Frequent respiratory infections, such as bronchitis.
-Swelling of feet or ankles (peripheral edema).
What does treatment of mitral stenosis depend on?
The symptoms and condition of the heart and lungs.
What are some of the treatment options available for patients with mitral stenosis?
Medications which can be used to treat symptom of heart failure, high blood pressure, and abnormal heart rhythms include:
-Diuretics (water pills).
-Calcium channel blockers
-Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)
What are some of the medications to treat the symptoms of mitral stenosis and what do they do?
-Anticoagulants (blood thinners) are used to prevent blood clots from traveling to other parts of the body.
-Antibiotics may be used in some cases of mitral stenosis. People who have had rheumatic fever may need long-term preventative treatment with the antibiotic penicillin.
Some people may need heart surgery or procedures to treat mitral stenosis. These include what?
-Percutaneous mitral balloon valvotomy (also called valvuloplasty).
-Surgery to repair or replace the mitral valve.
What is mitral stenosis associated with?
Diastolic decrescendo murmur occurring after an opening snap.
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