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Anthro Exam 2
Terms in this set (63)
Distributing scarce resources, system that employs people to produce goods and services to wages, but money, wages are relatively new concepts
The way a society gets its food strongly predicts other aspects of a culture, from community size and permanence of settlement to type of economy and degree of inequality and type of political system, and even art styles and religious beliefs and practices.
or collection may generally be defined as a strategy whereby human gather, hunt, scavenge, or fish to obtain their food from plants and animals found in the wild.
are not very numerous in the world today, this was the ways humans got their food for must of human history
the form of subsistence technology in which food- getting is dependent on the cultivation and domestication of plants and animals
Horticulture- plant cultivation carried out with relatively simple tools and methods; nature is allowed to replace nutrients in the soil, in the absence of permanently cultivated fields
plant cultivation carried out with relatively simple tools and methods; nature is allowed to replace nutrients in the soil, in the absence of permanently cultivated fields
Extensive (shifting) cultivation
a type of horticulture in which the land is worked for short periods and then left to regenerate for some years before being used again. Also called shifting cultivation
dense tropical forest that covers most of this territory
Slash and Burn
a form of shifting cultivation in which the natural vegetation is cut down and burned off. They cleared ground is used for a short time and then left to regenerate.
food production characterized by the permanent cultivation of fields and made possible by the use of the plow, draft animals or machines, fertilizers, irrigation, water-storage techniques, and other complex agricultural techniques.
the increasing dependence on buying and selling, with money usually as the medium of exchange
a form of subsistence technology in which food-getting is based directly or indirectly on the maintenance of domesticated animals.
when they were first described, most of the societies known to anthropology had a domestic family or kinship mode of production. Labor consisted of people getting food and producing shelter and implements for themselves and their kin.
rely largely on mechanized production, in agriculture, as well as in factories only some individuals (capitalists) corporations, or governments can afford the expenses of production.
found in nonindustrial societies, a third system is the tributary type of production, wherein most people still produce their own food by an elite or aristocracy controls of portion of production, including the products of specialized crafts.
US economy and other developed economies are now moving from industrialism to post industrialism. In many areas of commerce, computers have radically transformed the workplace
a system of required labor
giving and taking (not politically arranged without the use of money)
gift giving without any immediate or planned return.
giving with the expectation of a straightforward immediate or limited-time trade
the accumulation of goods (or labor) by a particular place and their subsequent distribution.
Market or Commercial Exchange
referring to exchanges or transactions in which the "prices" are subject to supply and demand, whether or not the transactions actually occur in a market place. Market exchange involves not only the exchange (buying and selling) of goods but also transaction of labor, land, rentals, and credit.
a universally accepted medium of exchange
things that have value in a culture, including land, tools and other technology, goods and money
the ability to make others do what they do not want to do or influence based on the threat of force
being accorded particular respect or honor
societies in which all people of a given age-sex category have equal access to economic resources, power, and prestige
societies that do not have any unequal access to economic resources or power, but with social groups that have unequal access to status positions and prestige
societies containing social groups that have unequal access to economic resources, power, and prestige.
a category of people who have about the same opportunity to obtain economic resources, power, and prestige.
a ranked group, often associated with a certain occupation, in which membership is determined at birth and marriage is restricted to member's of one's own caste.
the granting of freedom to a slave.
the belief, without scientific basis, that some "races" are inferior to others
In biology, race refers to a subpopulation or variety of a species that differs somewhat in gene frequencies from other varieties of the species. Many anthropologists do no think that the concept of race is usefully applied to humans because humans do not fall into geographic populations that can be easily distinguished in terms of different sets of biological or physical traits. Thus, "race" in humans is largely a culturally assigned category.
the process of defining ethnicity usually involves a group of people emphasizing common origins and language, shared history, and selected aspects of cultural difference such as a difference in religion. Because different groups are doing the perceiving, ethnic identities often vary with whether one is inside or outside the group.
a driver/ product of increasing commercialization or our global economic system.
The degree of unequal access by the different genders to prestige, authority, power, rights, and economic resources.
Differences between females and males that reflect cultural expectations and experiences
The typical differences between females and males that are most likely due to biological differences.
A marked difference in size and appearance between males and females or a species
Roles that are culturally assigned to genders.
Primary Subsistence Activities
The food-getting activities; gathering, hunting, fishing, herding, and agriculture.
Secondary Subsistence Activities
Activities that involve the preparation and processing of food either to make it edible or to store it.
A socially approved sexual and economic union, usually between a man and as woman, that is presumed, both by the couple and by others, to be more or less permanent, and that subsumes reciprocal rights and obligations between the two spouses and their future children.
A substantial gift of goods or money given to the bride's kin by the groom or his kin at or before the marriage. Also called bride wealth.
work performed by the groom for his bride's family for a variable length of time either before or after the marriage.
A substantial transfer of goods or money from the bride's family to the bride.
Goods given by the groom's kin to the bride (or her father, who passes most of them to her) at or before her marriage.
Prohibition of sexual intercourse or marriage between mother and son, father and daughter, and brother and sister; often extends to other relatives.
the rule specifying marriage to a person from outside one's own group (kin or community)
The rule specifying marriage to a person within one's own group (kin, caste, community)
Children or siblings of the opposite sex. One's cross-cousins are the father's sisters' children and mother's brothers' children.
Children of siblings of the same sex. One's parallel cousins are the father's brothers' children and the mother's sisters' children.
Marriage between only one man and only one woman at a time.
your sexuality refers to what gender you are attracted to is partially culturally constructed. We tend to think of sexuality as rigid, unchanging in our life times. Like most things human, there are lots of diversity worldwide and many cultures with more flexible identities.
general degree of difference in biology of females and males of a species
-features besides sexual differences (height, weight, strength, lifespan)
what biology stipulates about our morphology, genetic predisposition
the environment we are raised in, our cultural background, enculturation process
What determines sex?
2. gonads (hormones)
acting and dressing in ways that are regarded in a particular culture as "masculine" or "famine" or "other gender variants"
set of strongly held beliefs about male/ female characteristics: often oversimplified
is a socially constructed category that reflects real biological variation. To better explain this, we can liken the sex spectrum to the color spectrum. Nature doesn't decide where the category of 'male' ends and the category of 'intersex' begins, or where the category of 'intersex' ends and the category of 'female begins. Humans decide.
disciplining the body through control of sex characteristics to meet cultural
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