world history patterns of interaction chapter 15 vocabulary
Terms in this set (33)
The semi-nomadic hunter-gathers lived by gathering wild foods and hunting animals.
One of several hunting-gathering societies in old and present day Africa. They are Forest Dwellers who traded with farming villages.
(Also called the Bushmen) Lived in Sourthern Africa and part of East Africa
Descendants of a common ancestor. Includes past generations (spirits of ancestors) and future generations (children not yet born). Members feel strong loyalties to one another.
Developed south of the Sahara Lineage groups took the place of rulers. These societies did not have a centralized system of power. Instead, power was balanced among lineages of equal power so that no one family had too much control. Respected elders from different lineages settled disputes within a village.
Members trace their ancestors through their fathers. Inheritance passes from father to son. When a son marries, he, his wife, and their children remain part of his father's extended family.
Children trace their ancestors through their mothers.Young men inherit land and wealth from their mother's family. However, even in a matrilineal society, men usually hold the positions of authority.
Young people within a region who are born during a certain time period. Each age set passes together through life stages, such as warrior or elder. Ceremonies marks the passage to each new stage. Men and women have different life stages, and each stage has its own duties and importance. Societies like the Igbo use the age-set system to teach discipline, community service, and leadership skills to their young.
Developed north of the Sahara, Islam played a vital role in North Africa. The government was based upon Islamic law. Muslims believe that God's law is a higher authority than any human law. Therefore, Muslim rulers often relied on religious scholars as government advisers.
The Meditierranean coast of North Africa - a region of western North Africa, consisting of the Mediterranean coastlands of what is now Morocco, Tunisia, and Algeria
Muslims do not separate their personal life from their religious life, and Islamic law regulates almost all areas of human life. However, various Muslim states had ethnic and cultural differences.
Fiercely independent desert and mountain dwellers who converted to Islam although they maintained their Berber identifties and loyalities. The original inhabitants of North Africa
Members came from a Berber group; began a strict religious brotherhood. They tried to spread Islam through conquest. Captured Morocco, Ghana and parts of southern Spain-where they were called Moors.
An important trade center on the edge of the Sahara. The northern African capital of Islam, founded by Almoravids. This city in Morocco became a center of trade between Western Africa, Arabia and Europe.
Fortified monastery where the Almoravids lived.
Seized power from the Almoravids thus ending Almoravids rule.. Followed the teachings of Ibn Tumart who urged his followers to strictly obey the teachings of the Qur'an and Islamic law. United the Maghrib under one rule for the first time.
The Soninke people called their ruler Ghana or war chief. Muslim traders started calling the Soninke area Ghana. The West Africian empire that controlled the gold-salt trade. Conquered by the Muslim Almoravids in 1076, had gold mines, located on important trade routes, kings got wealthy from taxes from people traveling through, only kings could own gold nuggets, they also were the judges and military leaders, lacked salt to preserve food so they traded salt for gold.
The first emperor (leader) of Mali that came to power by crushing an unpopular ruler. He was a good leader in times of war and in times of peace. He captured Ghana and promoted agriculture and reestablished trade. His empire became known as Mali which means 'where the King lives." He also put administrators in charge of finances, defense, and foreign affairs. He died in 1255, and the next rulers were African Muslims.
One of the west African Trading Kingdoms (Mande kingdom) that followed the Kingdom of Ghana in 1235. Grew wealthy from the gold trade and declined by the 1400s. They were rich in gold and established a vast trading network across the Sahara desert. Greatest ruler was Mansa Musa, who converted to Islam and made a famous pilgrimage. This kingdom encouraged the spread of Islam.
May have been Sundiata's grandnephew. He ruled from 1312 to 1332 in Mali. He directed the gold-salt trade and built new mosques. His 100,000 man army kept order and protected Mali from attack. This Mali king brought Mali to its peak of power and wealth, he was the most powerful king in west Africa. He went on the hajj to Mecca and gave away so much gold on his journey that the European's learned of Mali's wealth.
A devout Muslim who wrote about his 27 years of travel to most Islamic countries. He visited Mali in 1332. He was a Morrocan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan. His writings gave a glimpse into the world of that time period. He praised the people for their study of the Qur'an but criticized them for not strictly practicing Islam's moral code.
Last powerful West African empire. A wealthy West African empire that lacked the modern weapons of the day; defeated by the Moroccorans in 1591.
Ruled northern Nigerian city-states. A group of people who built city-states in West Africa and were named after the language they spoke. Each one had a similar form of government. Each city state had an army of horsemen to protect the city. The city-states constantly fought, so an empire never surfaced.
All the people spoke a common language like the Hausa. This group of people was also made up of a group of small city states that were in the forests of the savanna-now what is Benin and southwestern Nigeria. Overtime the smaller communities joined together to form kingdoms. There were several of these kingdoms led by kings. (also known as chiefs) All rulers traced descent from the first ruler of Ife.
Nigerian city-state formed by the Edo people during the 14th century. The rulers were called Oba (also descents of Ife) and had a powerful army. It was a major trade center (ivory and furs), famous for its bronze art work. Died out because of slave trade.
The language that developed along the east coast of Africia as a blend of the Arabic with the Bantu languages. A mixed African-Arabic culture that developed along the east coast of Africa
The Shona's city of stone houses in southeastern Africa that were built between about 1250 and 1450. It became an empire built on the gold trade when it was a trading center and the capital of a large state. Now in ruins (in the modern African country of Zimbabwe).
The empire founded by Mutota that mined gold and traded in the 1500s. It endured Portuguese interference. man named Mutota left Great Zimbabwe in 1420 to find salt, traveled north into a fertile valley, dominated Shona people, forced gold miner, tried to be overtaken by Portuguese in 1500s but failed, An empire that was called Mutapa because they liked the name which resembles Mutota and his successors. Also means title of respect for rule. thats how this kingdom got its name.
The first Queen of Hausa - known as the "headdress among the turbans," she ruled the city-state of Zazzau during many of its military conquests. She traded slaves, guns, horses, and was one of the only woman rulers.
Great city of Mali. This city was located at the crossroads of major trade routes on the Niger River. It became one of the most important cities of the Mali empire. A major cultural and trading city in the Mali and Songhai empires. Filled with outstanding mosques and universities,
West African river, its rich soil gave rise to several civilizations; it also helped unite the region by enabling merchants and travelers to spread goods and ideas up and down the river
Horn of Africa
Triangular peninsula near Arabia. Area where Arab traders from across the Red Sea established trading settlements. Trading bought Asian manufactured goods to Africa and African raw materials to Asia.
Conquerors of East Africa.