Terms in this set (87)
3. What is the difference between a test and an assessment?
A test is only part of assessment. Assessment refers to measuring something, evaluating what is measured, and then using the information for decision making. A test is one way to measure.
4. Refer to Table 1.2. Identify each of the following examples as preassessment (P), formative assessment (F), or summative assessment (S).
a. Giving a pop quiz
b. Giving a cumulative final exam
c. Praising students for correct answers
d. Using homework to judge student knowledge
e. Reviewing student scores on last year's standardized test
f. Changing the lesson plan because of student inattention
g. Reviewing student files to understand students' cultural backgrounds
5. Identify each of the following quotes as referring to one of the four components of classroom assessment: purpose (P), measurement (M), interpretation (I), and use (U).
a. "Last week I determined that my students did not know very much about the Civil War."
b. "This year I want to see if I can assess student attitudes."
c. "The test helped me to identify where students were weak."
d. "I like the idea of using performance-based assessments."
e. "I intend to combine several different assessments to determine the grade."
1. Identify each of the following as a goal (G), standard (S), or learning target (LT):
a. Students will identify three different types of rocks from a display of 15 rocks and place them in like piles
b. Students will be familiar with global geography
c. Students will be able to write creative passages and critique other students' creative passages
d. Students will answer 10 of 12 questions about ancient Egypt in 15 minutes without use of notes.
2. What does the term criteria have in common with behavioral objectives? How is it different from what is contained in objectives?
Criteria are part of what would be included in a behavioral objective. Criteria, in contrast to objectives, contain descriptions of different levels of performance.
3. Suppose a teacher pulls out a graded paper that was handed in by a student from a previous year's class and distributes it to the class. What would the paper be called in relation to assessment?
c. Scoring criteria
d. Performance criteria
6. Identify each of the following as a knowledge target (K) or a deep understanding/reasoning target (DU).
a. Recalling historical facts from the Revolutionary war
b. Comparing vertebrates to invertebrates
c. Identifying the organs in a dissected frog
d. Explaining how and why recent U.S. recessions affected the world economy
7. Why may Bloom's original taxonomy of educational objectives not be the best source for identifying classroom learning targets?
Bloom's taxonomy is not aligned very well with more recent research on learning and motivation.
9. What is the primary difference between content and performance standards?
Content standards describe the nature of the material that is to be learned, whereas performance standards indicate levels of achievement on the content that must be met.
Identify each of the following descriptions as declarative (D) or procedural (P) and as knowledge (K) or understanding (U).
a. Define procedural knowledge
b. What is the sequence of steps in preparing an objective test?
c. Give an example of a multiple-choice item that measures application
d. List three suggestions for constructing matching items
e. Predict whether students will have questions about how to answer the items in the test
f. Review the strategy a teacher has used to construct binary-choice test items to determine if they can be improved
11. Identify the thinking or reasoning skill illustrated by each of the following examples, using this key:
C critical thinking
D decision making
P problem solving
a. Suppose you were President Obama and had to decide whether to send more troops to Afghanistan. What would you do? Why would you do it?
b. State your reasons for agreeing or disagreeing with the following statement: Religious people are more likely to help others
c. Given what you know about sailing, what would most likely occur if a novice sailor tried to sail directly into the wind?
d. Examine three different human cultures. What is common in all three cultures, and what principle about being human does this suggest?
e. Examine four recent presidential speeches. Is any part of the speeches the same?
f. How can the U.S. reduce the rate of teenage pregnancies?
g. Suppose you had to choose between increasing taxes to reduce the U.S. budget deficit or decreasing federal spending to reduce the deficit. Which would you choose? Why? How would your choice affect retired persons?
h. Examine the data on birthrates. What is likely to happen to the birthrate by the year 2020? Why?
Should teachers be concerned about relatively technical features of assessments such as validity and reliability? Why or why not?
Yes, but not in the way psychometricians do with published, standardized tests. Validity and reliability are essential to fairness, proper interpretation of assessments, and teacher decision making. Both validity and reliability are best estimated by teacher judgement and logical analysis and not statistically, unless the statistics are easily provided.
Match the description with the type of assessment.
1. _____ Based on verbal instruction
2. _____ Made up of questionnaires and surveys
3. _____ Selection or supply type
4. _____ Constructs unique response to demonstrate skill
5. _____ Either restricted- or extended-constructed response
6. _____ Used constantly by teachers informally
a. Selected response
d. oral question
3. For each of the following situations or questions, indicate which assessment method provides the best match (selected responses, S; essay, E; performance, P; oral question, OR; observation, OB; and self-report, SR)
(answer and question in book)
4. Which of the following statements is correct, and why?
a. Validity is impossible without strong reliability
b. A test can be reliable without validity
c. A valid test is reliable
a. Yes; if the score is not consistent or stable, the interference will likewise not be consistent or stable and hence inaccurate and invalid. b. Yes; a measure of the circumference of your big toe is very reliable but not very valid for measuring your ability to read. c. No; tests are not valid or invalid, only inferences are.
5. Mr. Nelson asks the other math teachers in his high school to review his midterm to see if the test items represent his learning targets. Which type of evidence for validity is being used?
7. Which aspect of fairness is illustrated in each of the following assessment situations?
a. Students complained because they were not told what to study for the test
b. Students studied the wrong way for the test (e.g. they memorized content)
c. The teacher was unable to cover the last unit that was on the test
d. The story students read, the one they would be tested on, was about life in the northeast during winter. Students who had been to that part of the country in winter showed better comprehension scores than students who had rarely even seen snow.
e. Students complained that most of what was taught was not on that test.
a. A student knowledge of assessment
b. student knowledge of assessment
c. opportunity to learn
d. biased content
1. Which of the following are considered standardized tests?
3. What kind of information would lead one to conclude that a student has clear weaknesses in a particular skill?
When the information from several different sources suggests the same conclusion, when there is a pattern of performance for several years, and when your own informal assessment coincides with what is in school records.
4. How is it possible for all school districts in a state to be above the 50th percentile on a standardized norm-referenced test?
Because norms are established in one year and then used for several more years, and current scores are compared to the 2004 norms. Before new norms are established, all the school districts may target skills assessed on the test.
The student reads below grade level.
I want to assess student personalities to create diverse work groups.
I want to have a better understanding of what motivates the students to study.
This year I want to more closely monitor student progress between major tests.
The student correctly answered 85% of the questions.
The student correctly spells words at a fifth-grade level.
The teacher made notes about the strategies the student used to sound out unfamiliar words.
I want to see where the students have weak study habits.
The student can read 136 words a minute.
Which of these words is most commonly associated with assessment?
Which of these best describes the purpose of doing assessment prior to instruction?
to plan appropriate instruction
Assessment experts recommend that the specific learning targets, evidence of learning, and the characteristics of a quality performance should be shared with students. What principle of cognitive learning theory does this support?
People perform better when they know the goal, see models, and know how their performance compares to the standard.
Which of the following best describes characteristics of assessment for learning?
Formative, describes the needs for future learning.
Which of the following statements is most true about teaching in a high stakes testing environment?
Higher test scores result from assessments that are implemented on the basis of promoting student learning, rather than showing student performance.
Which of these statements best describes the role that the end use of assessment plays in planning for assessment?
The kinds of decisions that will be made influence the kind and quantity of information to collect
A school system developed a set of tests at each grade level to identify which students were having difficulty meeting minimum performance expectations. The tests were properly developed based on the district curriculum and field tested. Then a standard setting procedure was used to establish three mastery levels: advanced, proficient, below expectation. The new school board charged the superintendent with using the results of the test to determine honor roll members and to help select high school valedictorians. According to the description, the original purpose of the tests was to determine who..
has met grade level expectations.
A school system developed a set of tests at each grade level to identify which students were having difficulty meeting minimum performance expectations. The tests were properly developed based on the district curriculum and field tested. Then a standard setting procedure was used to establish three mastery levels: advanced, proficient, below expectation. The new school board charged the superintendent with using the results of the test to determine honor roll members and to help select high school valedictorians. Which of these statements is false?
The tests were constructed to support the way in which the new school board wanted to use the tests.
According to the textbook, which of these best describes what a performance standard is?
It describes specific characteristics of a competent performance or quality product.
Use the coding system below to answer the question. I Prior to instruction to diagnose students' needs II During instruction to monitor progress III After instruction to hold students accountable for learning When is it appropriate to use a measurement scale to differentiate levels of performance?
I, II, and III
Use the coding system below to answer the question. I Prior to instruction to diagnose students' needs II During instruction to monitor progress III After instruction to hold students accountable for learning When is it appropriate for the teacher to make evaluation judgments about a student's performance?
I, II, and III
Use the coding system below to answer the question. I Prior to instruction to diagnose students' needs II During instruction to monitor progress III After instruction to hold students accountable for learning When is it appropriate to assign a grade to an assessment?
Use the coding system below to answer the question. I Prior to instruction to diagnose students' needs II During instruction to monitor progress III After instruction to hold students accountable for learning When should a teacher provide students feedback about their performance?
I, II, and III
Which of these pairs of phrases best describes the relationship between content standards and performance criteria?
what students should be able to do: how well they should be able to do it
Which of these pairs of words best describes key characteristics of a learning target?
observable and measurable
Which of these is not a key step in defining scoring criteria?
describe how observations are to be documented
Which of these is not a component of the CCSS initiative?
college and career readiness
Which of these best explains the purpose of providing students with examples of a quality product or performance before they do their work?
they clarify what students should be aiming for in their work
A teacher wrote the following learning target: "Students will write a well-developed essay comparing the basic economic principles of communism and capitalism." This learning target is flawed because it does not:
clarify how performance will be judged
Second-grade students should be able to retell a story. At the beginning of the year, the retelling should include the beginning, middle, and end of the story. By the end of the year, the retelling should also include details about the setting, characters, and plot. The change in student performance from the beginning of the school year to the end is an example of
a learning target
Which of these is not one of the benefits of specifying the learning targets for a unit of study?
Targets help focus on what may be most important to assess and what assessment formats may be most appropriate.
After a unit of study, a teacher administered a multiple-choice test and a mini project as the assessments. The teacher was disappointed when the students did not perform as well as she had hoped. Which of these actions would most likely be helpful to the teacher?
analyze the specific targets for the unit and determine if instruction was adequate
"Benchmarks" are content standards that present specific statements about what students should understand and be able to do ________.
at specific grade levels or developmental stages
"Measurement" is ________.
the gathering of quantitative data related to the knowledge and skills students have acquired
Assessment has been defined as a ________.
process of observing a sample of student performance
Classroom assessment provides information that teachers use in all of the following ways except ________.
to regularize feedback to students to save time for teachers
process for obtaining information for making decisions about students; curricula, programs and schools; and educational policy
procedure for assigning numbers (usually called scores) to a specified attribute or characteristic of a person in such a way that the numbers describe the degree to which the person possesses the attribute.
process of making a value judgment about the worth of a student's product or performance.
judging the quality of a student's achievement while the student is still in the process of learning.
formative assessment of students' achievement
judging the quality or worth of a student's achievement after the instructional process is completed.
summative assessment of students' achievement
instrument or systematic procedure for observing and describing one or more characteristics of a student using either a numerical scale or a classification scheme.
Content standards are misconceptions about what students are expected to learn and do in the classroom.
Performance standards are things students can perform or do once the content standards are learned.
an approach to planning where instructional decisions are made by specifying the evidence that is needed to evaluate students. The evidence is identified upfront, before determining instructional plans because it influences instruction.
process by which traits, characteristics or behavior is differentiated. (Traditional definition- a systematic process of assigning numbers to behavior or performance.)
using commonly accepted objectives for student learning
done after instruction as a way to document what students know, understand, and can do.
done before instruction to determine ascertain students' knowledge, attitudes, and interests (finding out what students know about a topic); used as a starting point for designing instruction.
occurs during teaching- used to help teachers assess students progress during a lesson, provide feedback and make decisions about further instructional activities. Example: exit slips
reconfiguring concepts or things so that they reinforce and support each other
a number of different kinds of assessments that are not traditional paper-and-pencil tests, such as performance and portfolio assessments.
tests with consequences (Examples - exit exams, EOC, PARCC); NCLB - AYP (adequate yearly progress) starting point established by schools as a target for the percentage of students that need to be classified as proficient
high stakes testing
gathering, interpreting, and using evidence of student learning and motivation to support teacher decision making in a variety of ways
knowing how to do something
general statements about desired outcomes (great beginning point to determine what should be taught and assessed)
a statement of student performance for a relatively restricted type of learning outcome that will be achieved in a single lesson or a few days
used to describe intended learning outcomes
relatively specific statements of student performance that should be demonstrated at the end of an instructional unit (objective is used to describe student outcomes)
a set of shared standards for English/language arts and mathematics developed by the states that provide a consistent, clear understanding of what students are expected to learn (designed to be robust, rigorous and relevant to real world, reflecting knowledge and skills young people need to be college and career ready)
common core state standards ccss
statements about what students should know and be able to do, typically stated for different grade levels (more specific than goals)
information that is retained about something, knowing that it exists.
students summarize in their own words (comprehension) and use the steps in executing a solution (application)
clearly articulated descriptions of facets or dimensions of student performance that are used for judging the level of achievement
(learning activity) what you plan to do as the teacher
use of a systematic approach to defining the nature of what is learned and they provide a common language for describing student learning
Examples of a finished student product or performance and the instructor's evaluation of it is called....
a. all of the above
d. none of the above
none of the above
There are several criteria for selecting learning targets. Which of the following is not a criteria for selecting learning targets?
Establish learning targets that are inconsistent with current principles of learning and motivation
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