Terms in this set (123)

  • Skull
    The bony framework of the head consisting of the cranial and facial bones
  • Cranial bones
    The eight bones that form the cranial cavity, which encloses and protects the brain. Include the frontal bone, two parietal bones, two temporal bones, the occipital bone, the sphenoid bone, and the ethmoid bone
  • Facial bones
    The fourteen bones that form the face, including two nasal bones, two maxillae, two zygomatic bones, the mandible, two lacrimal bones, two palatine bones, two inferior nasal conchae, and the vomer
  • Frontal bone
    The bone that forms the forehead (the anterior part of the cranium), the roofs of the orbits, and most of the anterior part of the cranial floor
  • Orbits
    Eye sockets
  • Supraorbital margin
    A thickened region of the frontal bone, at the superior border of the orbits
  • Supraorbital foramen
    An opening within the supraorbital margin of the frontal bone; it is sometimes incomplete and forms a notch
  • Parietal bones
    A pair of bones that form the greater portion of the sides and roof of the cranial cavity
  • Temporal bones
    A pair of bones that form the inferior lateral aspects of the cranium and part of the cranial floor
  • Temporal squama
    The thin, flat part of the temporal bone that forms the anterior and superior part of the temple (the region of the cranium around the ear)
  • Zygomatic process
    A projection from the inferior portion of the temporal squama that articulates with the temporal process of the zygomatic bone
  • Zygomatic arch
    Formed by the zygomatic process of the temporal bone and the temporal process of the zygomatic bone
  • Mandibular fossa
    A socket located on the inferior posterior surface of the zygomatic process of each temporal bone that articulates with the mandible to form the temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
  • Articular tubercle
    A rounded elevation anterior to the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone that articulates with the mandible to form the temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
  • Mastoid portion
    A part of the temporal bone located posterior and inferior to the external auditory meatus that contains several tiny air-filled compartments that communicate with the hollow space of the middle ear
  • External auditory meatus
    The ear canal, located in the temporal bone, which directs sound waves into the ear
  • Mastoid process
    The rounded projection of the mastoid portion of the temporal bone posterior and inferior to the external auditory meatus that is the point of attachment for several neck muscles
  • Internal auditory meatus
    An opening in the temporal bone through which the facial (VII) nerve and vestibulocochlear (VIII) nerve pass
  • Styloid process
    A stake-like projection of the inferior surface of the temporal bone that serves as a point of attachment for muscles and ligaments of the tongue and neck
  • Petrous portion
    A triangular structure of the temporal bone, located on the floor of the cranial cavity between the sphenoid and occipital bones; houses the internal ear, middle ear, carotid foramen, and jugular foramen
  • Carotid foramen
    An opening in the temporal bone through which the internal carotid artery passes
  • Jugular foramen
    An opening in the temporal bone through which the internal jugular vein, glossopharyngeal (IX), vagus (X), and accessory nerves pass
  • Occipital bone
    The bone that forms the posterior part and most of the base of the cranium
  • Foramen magnum
    A large hole in the inferior part of the occipital bone that allows passage of the medulla oblongata and its membranes (meninges), accessory (XI) nerve, and the vertebral and spinal arteries.
  • Occipital condyles
    A pair of oval processes with convex surfaces on the occipital bone located on either side of the foramen magnum; articulate with depressions on the first cervical vertebra (atlas) to form the atlanto-occipital joint which allows you to nod your head "yes"
  • External occipital protuberance
    The most prominent midline "bump" on the posterior surface of the occipital bone just above the foramen magnum; serves as a point of attachment for the ligamentum nuchae, which extends inferiorly to the seventh cervical vertebra to help support the head
  • Superior nuchal lines
    Two curved ridges that extend laterally from the external occipital protuberance that serve as areas of muscle attachment
  • Inferior nuchal lines
    Two curved ridges located below the external occipital protuberance that serve as areas of muscle attachment
  • Sphenoid bone
    The bone resembling a butterfly that lies at the middle part of the base of the skull, called the keystone of the cranial floor because it articulates with all the other cranial bones, holding them together
  • Sella turcica
    A bony, saddle-shaped structure on the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid bone
  • Tuberculum sellae
    A ridge located at the anterior part of the sella turcica that forms the horn of the saddle
  • Hypophyseal fossa
    A depression in the sella turcica that forms the seat of the saddle; contains the pituitary gland
  • Dorsum sellae
    A ridge located at the posterior part of the sella turcica, which forms the back of the saddle
  • Greater wings
    A pair of large structures of the sphenoid bone that project laterally from the body and form the anterolateral floor of the cranium and the lateral wall of the skull just anterior to the temporal bone and can be viewed externally
  • Lesser wings
    A pair of smaller structures of the sphenoid bone that form a ridge of bone anterior and superior to the greater wings; they form part of the floor of the cranium and the posterior part of the orbit of the eye
  • Optic foramen
    An opening between the body and lesser wing of the sphenoid just anterior to the sella turcica, through which the optic (II) nerve and ophthalmic artery passes into the orbit
  • Superior orbital fissure
    A triangular slit found lateral to the body of the sphenoid between the greater and lesser wings through which blood vessels and cranial nerves pass
  • Pterygoid processes
    Wing-like structures of the sphenoid bone that project inferiorly from the points where the body and greater wings of the sphenoid bone unite; they form the lateral posterior region of the nasal cavity and serve as points of attachment for some of the muscles that move the mandible
  • Foramen ovale
    An opening found at the base of the lateral pterygoid process in the greater wing of the sphenoid bone through which the mandibular branch of the trigeminal (V) nerve passes
  • Foramen spinosum
    A small opening located near the base of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone which allows passage of the meningeal branch of the mandibular nerve.
  • Foramen lacerum
    An opening covered in part by a layer of fibrocartilage that is bounded anteriorly by the sphenoid bone and medially by the sphenoid and occipital bones; it allows passage of a branch of the ascending pharyngeal artery
  • Foramen rotundum
    An opening located at the junction of the anterior and medial parts of the sphenoid bone through which the maxillary branch of the trigeminal (V) nerve passes
  • Ethmoid bone
    A delicate bone located in the anterior part of the cranial floor medial to the orbits and is sponge-like in appearance; it is anterior to the sphenoid and posterior to the nasal bones and forms (1) part of the anterior portion of the cranial floor, (2) the medial wall of the orbits, (3) the superior portion of the nasal septum, and (4) most of the superior sidewalls of the nasal cavity
  • Cribriform plate
    The part of the ethmoid bone that lies in the anterior floor of the cranium and forms the roof of the nasal cavity; it contains olfactory foramina through which the olfactory nerves pass
  • Crista galli
    A triangular process that projects superiorly from the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone which serves as a point of attachment for the falx cerebri, the membrane that separates the two sides of the brain
  • Perpendicular plate
    An inferior projection of the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone that forms the superior portion of the nasal septum
  • Superior nasal conchae
    Two thin, scroll-shaped projections of the uppermost ethmoid bone lateral to the nasal septum; located under the nasal bone so are not visible in an intact skull; also called turbinates; they greatly increase the surface area of the nasal cavity and help swirl and filter air before it passes into the lungs; they also help increase the surface area for the sense of smell
  • Middle nasal conchae
    Two thin, scroll-shaped projections of the lower ethmoid bone; they can be seen in the skull lateral to the perpendicular plate; also called turbinates; they greatly increase the surface area of the nasal cavity and help swirl and filter air before it passes into the lungs
  • Nasal bones
    A pair of small, flattened, rectangular-shaped bones that form the bridge of the nose, protect the upper entry into the nasal cavity, and provide attachment for a couple of thin muscles of facial expression
  • Lacrimal bones
    A pair of small, thin bones that resemble a fingernail in size and shape located posterior and lateral to the nasal bones and form a part of the medial wall of each orbit; the smallest bones of the face
  • Lacrimal fossa
    A vertical tunnel in the lacrimal bone that is formed with the maxilla; it houses the lacrimal sac which gathers tears and passes them into the nasal cavity
  • Palatine bones
    A pair of L-shaped bones that form the posterior portion of the hard palate, part of the floor of the lateral wall of the nasal cavity, and a small portion of the floors of the orbits
  • Horizontal plates
    The parts of the palatine bones that form the posterior portion of the hard palate
  • Inferior nasal conchae
    A pair of scroll-shaped bones located below the middle nasal conchae of the ethmoid bone that form a part of the lower lateral walls of the nasal cavity and project into the nasal cavity; they greatly increase the surface area of the nasal cavity and help swirl and filter air before it passes into the lungs
  • Vomer
    A roughly triangular bone on the floor of the nasal cavity that articulates superiorly with the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone and sphenoid bone and inferiorly with both the maxillae and palatine bones along the midline; it forms the inferior portion of the bony nasal septum which divides the nasal cavity into right and left sides
  • Maxillae
    A pair of bones that unite to form the upper jawbone; form part of the floors of the orbits, part of the lateral walls and floor of the nasal cavity, and most of the hard palate
  • Hard palate
    The bony roof of the mouth formed by the palatine processes of the maxillae and horizontal plates of the palatine bones; it separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity
  • Alveolar process
    A ridge-like arch that contains the sockets for the maxillary (upper) and mandibular (lower) teeth
  • Palatine process
    A horizontal projection of the maxilla that forms the anterior three-quarters of the hard palate
  • Infraorbital foramen
    An opening in the maxilla located below the orbit, which allows passage of a branch of the maxillary division of the trigeminal (V) nerve and associated blood vessels
  • Incisive foramen
    An opening just posterior to the incisor teeth that transmits branches of the greater palatine blood vessels and nasopalatine nerve
  • Inferior orbital fissure
    An opening located between the greater wing of the sphenoid bone and maxilla
  • Zygomatic bones
    A pair of bones commonly called the cheekbones, that form the prominences of the cheeks and part of the lateral wall and floor of each orbit; they articulate with the frontal, maxilla, sphenoid, and temporal bones
  • Temporal process
    A projection from the zygomatic bone that projects posteriorly and articulates with the zygomatic process of the temporal bone to form the zygomatic arch
  • Mandible
    The lower jawbone; the largest and strongest facial bone; the only movable skull bone (other than the auditory ossicles, the small bones of the ear)
  • Body of the mandible
    The curved, horizontal portion of the lower jawbone
  • Rami
    The two perpendicular portions of the mandible that branch off the body
  • Angle of the mandible
    The area where each ramus meets the body
  • Condylar process
    A posterior structure of each ramus of the mandible that articulates with the mandibular fossa and articular tubercle of the temporal bone to form the temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
  • Coronoid process
    An anterior structure of each ramus of the mandible to which the temporalis muscle attaches
  • Mandibular notch
    The depression between the coronoid and condylar processes of the mandible
  • Mental foramen
    An opening in the mandible located on the chin, just inferior to the second premolar tooth that allows passage of associated nerves and blood vessels; a site used by dentists to inject anesthetics
  • Mandibular foramen
    An opening on the medial surface of each ramus of the mandible that is a site often used by dentists to inject anesthetics; allows passage of the inferior alveolar nerves and blood vessels
  • Coronal suture
    An immovable joint that unites the frontal bone and both parietal bones
  • Sagittal suture
    An immovable joint that unites the two parietal bones on the superior midline of the skull
  • Lambdoid suture
    An immovable joint that unites the two parietal bones to the occipital bone
  • Squamous suture
    An immovable joint that unites the parietal and temporal bones on the lateral aspects of the skull
  • Anterior fontanel
    An unpaired "soft spot", located at the midline among the two parietal bones and the frontal bone; the largest of the "soft spots" and is roughly diamond-shaped; usually closes 18-24 months after birth
  • Posterior fontanel
    An unpaired "soft spot" located at the midline among the two parietal bones and the occipital bone; usually closes about 2 months after birth
  • Anterolateral fontanels
    A pair of small and irregularly shaped "soft spots" located laterally among the frontal, parietal, temporal, and sphenoid bones; usually close about 3 months after birth
  • Posterolateral fontanels
    A pair of irregularly shaped "soft spots" located laterally among the parietal, occipital, and temporal bones; they begin to close 1-2 months after birth, but complete closure occurs around 12 months
  • Hyoid bone
    A U-shaped bone of the anterior neck (between the mandible and larynx) that does not articulate with any other bone; it is suspended from the styloid processes of the temporal bone by ligaments and muscles; supports the tongue, provides attachment sites for some tongue muscles and muscles of the neck and pharynx
  • Body of the hyoid bone
    The anterior, horizontal portion of the hyoid bone that serves as a point of attachment for muscles and ligaments
  • Greater and lesser horns
    Two pairs of projections of the hyoid bone that serve as points of attachment for muscles and ligaments
  • Vertebral column
    The spine, backbone, or spinal column that encloses and protects the spinal cord, supports the head, and serves as a point of attachment for the ribs, pelvic girdle, and muscles of the back and upper limbs; functions as a strong, flexible rod that can move forward, backward, sideways, and also rotate
  • Vertebrae
    The 26 bones that make up the adult vertebral column that surround and protect the spinal cord
  • Cervical vertebrae
    The seven vertebrae in the neck region; have small bodies, but larger vertebral arches than other vertebrae; each also contains three foramina
  • Thoracic vertebrae
    The twelve vertebrae posterior to the thoracic cavity; the only vertebrae that articulate with the ribs
  • Lumbar vertebrae
    The five vertebrae supporting the lower back; the largest and strongest of the unfused bones in the vertebral column
  • Sacrum
    The large, single triangular-shaped bone inferior to the lumbar vertebrae that consists of five fused vertebrae; serves as a strong foundation to the pelvic girdle
  • Coccyx
    The small, triangular-shaped single bone inferior to the sacrum that usually consists of of four fused vertebrae
  • Intervertebral discs
    Pads of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent vertebrae from the second cervical vertebrae to the sacrum; form strong joints, permit various movements of the vertebral column, and absorb vertical shock
  • Vertebral body
    The thick, disc-shaped anterior portion of a vertebra that is the weight-bearing part
  • Pedicles
    Two short, thick processes that project posteriorly from the vertebral body and unite with the laminae to form the vertebral arch
  • Laminae
    The flat portion of a vertebra between the pedicles and vertebral arch
  • Vertebral arch
    The portion of a vertebra that extends posteriorly from the body of the vertebra; consists of the pedicles and laminae
  • Vertebral foramen
    An opening created by the union of the vertebral body and vertebral arch that contains the spinal cord, adipose tissue, areolar connective tissue, and blood vessels
  • Vertebral canal
    Collectively formed by the vertebral foramina of all vertebrae
  • Transverse process
    A projection of the vertebral arch that extends laterally on each side of a vertebra at the point where a lamina and pedicle join; serve as points of muscle attachment
  • Spinous process
    A single projection of the vertebral arch that projects posteriorly from the junction of the laminae; serve as points of muscle attachment
  • Superior articular processes
    Projections of a vertebra that articulate with the two inferior articular processes of the vertebra immediately above them
  • Inferior articular processes
    Projections of a vertebra that articulate with the two superior articular processes of the vertebra immediately below them
  • Facets
    The articulating surfaces of the articular processes
  • Thoracic cage
    A bony enclosure formed by the sternum, ribs and their costal cartilages, and the bodies of the thoracic vertebrae that encloses and protects the organs in the thoracic and superior abdominal cavities, provides support for the bones of the upper limbs, and plays a role in breathing
  • Transverse foramen
    An opening in the transverse process of each cervical vertebra that allows passage of the vertebral arteries and their accompanying veins and nerves
  • Bifid
    Describes the spinous processes of C2-C6 that branch into two small projections at the tips
  • Atlas
    The first cervical vertebra (C1) inferior to the skull; does not have a vertebral body or a spinous process; its concave superior articular facets articulate with the occipital condyles of the occipital bone and permit the nodding movement of the head
  • Axis
    The second cervical vertebra (C2); has a vertebral body; articulates with C1 to permit side-to-side movement of the head, as when you shake your head "no"
  • Dens
    A peglike process of the axis that projects superiorly through the anterior portion of the vertebral foramen of the atlas; makes a pivot on which the atlas and head rotate
  • Odontoid process
    This is another name for the dens of the axis
  • Costal facets
    The articular surfaces for the ribs located on the large transverse processes of the thoracic vertebrae
  • Sacral hiatus
    An inferior entrance to the vertebral canal located on the sacrum in-between the sacral cornu
  • Sacroiliac joint
    Formed between the large ear-shaped auricular surfaces of the lateral sacrum and the ilium of each hip bone
  • Sternum
    A flat, narrow bone located in the center of the anterior thoracic wall; also called the breastbone
  • Manubrium
    The superior part of the sternum that articulates with the medial ends of the clavicles to form the sternoclavicular joints
  • Body of the sternum
    The middle and largest part of the sternum; articulates directly or indirectly with the costal cartilages of the second through tenth ribs
  • Xiphoid process
    The inferior part of the sternum shaped like the tip of a sword that provides attachment for some abdominal muscles
  • Ribs
    Twelve pairs of bones that give structural support to the sides of the thoracic cavity
  • Costal cartilage
    A strip of hyaline cartilage found on the first through seventh pairs of ribs that contribute to the elasticity of the thoracic cage and prevent various blows to the chest from fracturing the sternum and/or ribs
  • Head of the rib
    A projection at the posterior end of the rib that contains a pair of articular facets that articulate with a thoracic vertebra
  • Neck of the rib
    A constricted portion of a rib just lateral to the head
  • Body of the rib
    The main shaft of a rib
  • Costal groove
    The inner surface of a rib that protects the intercostal blood vessels and a small nerve