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the processes cells need to carry out are
sensing/responding to stimuli, compartmentation of metabolism, growth reproduction
bacterial flagella contain
helical filament, a hook, and a basal body and move in a circular movement
Some bacterial species have _______, used to transfer genetic material between cells
game positive cell walls
have a peptidoglycan structure that allows the stain to get stuck in the cell
gram negative cell walls
have an outer layer over the peptidoglycan layer that is made up of lipopolysaccharide not letting the stain into the cell wall
has an outer membrane, separated from the cell membrane by the periplasmic space
The gram-negative cell wall
The outer membrane of _____ contains proteins called porins that selectively allow small molecules into the periplasmic space
Only _____ contain a outer membrane, lipopolysaccharides, porin proteins, and periplasmic region
cell membranes can aid in
Cell wall synthesis, Energy metabolism, DNA replication, Sensation of stimuli, Molecule transport
Several antibiotics pick on unique target structures and ______ in the membrane, resulting in death through cell lysis.
most cells have only one copy of each gene which means
they are haploid and cannot undergo mitosis like eukaryotes
contain crystals of magnetite or greigite, allowing cells to respond to magnetic fields
aninward pinching of the cell membrane and cell wall to separate the cell into two genetically identical cells
1) cell elongates/ DNA replicates
2) cell wall and plasmid membrane begin to invaginate
3)cross wall forms two distinct cells
4) cell seperates
Thisconstantdoublingofthenumbers only occurs as long as nutrients for growth are available during the _____ of growth.
during the lag phase of bacterial growth
no cell division occurs while bacteria adapt to their new environment (1st stage)
The accumulation of waste products and scarcity of resources causes
the population to enter the decline (exponential death) phase
a highly resistant survival structure formed by species of Bacillus and Clostridium when nutrient supplies are low
spores can lay dormant
for years then germinate into a vegetative cell, withstand boiling water, alcohol and radiation
1) bacteria replicate with 2 chromosomes present waiting for split
2)one chromosome necondenses at the end of the cell and a transverse septum separates the prespore from the mother cell
3)septum forms completely and the prespore is completely engulfed in the mother spore
4) outer layer (cortex) develops around the prespore
5) walls of spore are complete and mother cell begins to disintegrate
6) spore is released and will germinate if in present conditions once again
Step 1 of endospore creation
A stressed cell undergoes asymmetrical cell division, creating a small prespore and larger mother cell
step 2 of endospore creation
Themothercellmaturesthepresporeintoanendospore,then disintegrates, freeing the spore
When environmental conditions are again favorable,
protective layers break down and the spore germinates into a vegetative cell
in order for bacterial to grow
Water, Carbon/energy sources, Essential elements and organic growth factors, Temperature, pH, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Osmotic conditions
Processes of Energy Usage
Biosynthesis of Polysaccharides, Lipids, Amino Acids, Proteins, Purine & Pyrimidine
Essential Elements & Organic Growth Factors
Glucose, salts, carbon, nitrogen, amino acids, purines, pyrimidines, vitamins
Each bacterial species has an optimal temperature for growth and about a ___ range of acceptable temperatures
grow optimally below 15°C, and make up the largest portion of all prokaryotes on Earth
thrive at the medium temperature range of 10° to 45°C, including pathogens that thrive in the human body
acid-tolerant prokaryotes, those used to turn milk into buttermilk, sour cream, and yogurt
can withstand incredibly high hydrostatic pressure, psychrophiles living at the bottom of the ocean
are salt-tolerant prokaryotes, They can maintain optimal osmotic pressure without
suffering from plasmolysis
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