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Type of structural protein that stabilizes the position of myosin


Category of proteins that switches the contraction process on and off

action potentials

What causes the release of calcium from the SR into the muscle cell


Type of protein that links the thin filaments to the sarcolemma


Category of proteins that generates the force during contraction


The forcefulness of a muscle contraction depends on the ____ of the sarcomere


Type of protein that provides a site where a myosin head can attach

Actin/ Thin

During the sliding filament mechanism which filament is pulled toward the center


Which type of contractile protein converts ATP to energy of motion


Category of proteins that aligns the thick and thin filaments properly


Which ion is most important in starting the contraction of the muscle

ATP Hydrolysis/ Formation of cross Bridges/ Power Stroke/ Detachment of myosin from Actin

List the four steps of the contraction cycle (In order)

Z discs

seperate one sarcomere from the next

A band

middle part of sarcomere where thick and thin filaments overlap one another

I band

lighter part of a sarcomere, contains thin but no thick filaments

H zone

center of each A band which contains thick but not thin filaments

M line

supporting proteins that hold the thick filaments together in the H zone

muscle proteins

what are myofibrils built from

troponin, tropomyosin

two types of regulatory proteins

myosin, actin

two types of contractile proteins

titin, dystrophin

two types of structural proteins

sliding filament mechanism

myosin heads attach to and walk along thin filaments at both ends of a sarcomere


what happens to the sarcomere and muscle after the sliding filament mechanism?

contraction cycle

the onset of contraction begins with the SR releasing calcium ions into the muscle cell, where they bind to actin opening the myosin binding sites

ATP hydrolysis

step where hydrolosis of ATP reorients and energizes the myosin head

formation of cross-bridges

step where myosin head attaches to the myosin-binding site on actin

power stroke

step when the crossbridge rotates, sliding the filaments

detachment of myosin from actin

step when as the next ATP binds to the myosin head, the hyosin head detaches from actin

ATP, Ca++

the contraction cycle repeats as long as what two things are available?

Ca++ pumps

the muscle cell membrane contains what that return Ca++ back to the SR quickly?


what happens to the muscle as the Ca++ level in the cell drops?

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