# Pharmacology Midterm Practice Questions

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Quiz 1. Caution should be used in taking ______ agents by patients who are hypersensitive to or who have a history of addiction to narcotics (like codeine)

a. decongestant
b. expectorant
c. antihistamine
d. antitussive
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b. decongestant. Decongestant vasoconstricts mucous membranes, "shrinking" them and thus promoting drainage. However, constant use causes the membranes to become tolerant, and congestion returns quicker. This requires more decongestant, which then causes an increased tolerance, etc. This process is known as "rebound congestion (rhinitis medicamentosa)." The exact pathophysiological mechanism is unclear.
Quiz 1. You are teaching your patients about various respiratory medications. Which of the following statements is false?

a. Oral decongestants may be helpful in patients with otitis media by opening the nasal passage and improving drainage of the eustachian tube

b. Acetylcysteine (Mucomyst) is used as both a respiratory medication and, in cases of acetaminophen overdoses, to prevent organ damage.

c. antihistamines are contraindicated in the presence of acute asthma attacks and lower respiratory diseases

d. Patient teaching for use of a nasal decongestion spray should include insuring that the tip of the bottle is placed into the nasal passage way and forcefully squeezed to ensure that the medication reaches the sinuses
Quiz 1. The nurse has provided health teaching for a 15-year-old boy newly diagnosed with asthma. What statement, made by the patient, indicates that he has a good understanding of the teaching the nurse has done regarding inhalers?

a. "I should hold my breath when administering a puff."

b. "The aerosol canister should be shaken well before using."

c. "I need to take three short quick breaths when I administer the inhaler."

d. "A second aerosol medication cannot be administered until 30 minutes after the first aerosol medication."
Answer: Option B. "The aerosol canister should be shaken well before using." Particles in canister may separate when not in use. Shaking makes sure it's well-mixed.

Option A is wrong: You should be breathing in slowly.

Option C is wrong: Breathe out before administration, and take one long deep breath during. Hold your breath for as long as possible afterwards. You may then breathe normally.

Option D is wrong: You may administer a second aerosol medication after 1 minute.
Quiz 1. An infant in born in the NICU and you suspect the infant may require Surfactant. For which condition(s) would the infant qualify for Surfactant?

a. Prophylactically given to infants at high risk for RDS (those babies born less than 29 weeks)

b. As a rescue treatment for an infant with moderate to severe RDS

c. Treatment of full term infants with respiratory failure for such conditions as pneumonia, meconium aspiration syndrome or PPH

d. all of the above
Quiz 1. Which statement is NOT true regarding the sympathomimetic agent Epinephrine?

a. It is acceptable for a pregnant woman to take this drug as it would have no affect on the fetus

b. Epinephrine is the drug of choice for treating acute bronchospasms in both children and adults

c. Your teaching this medication to your patient shou,ld include taking this medication in the morning in order to prevent insomnia

d. You would expect the therapeutic effect to be a dilation of the bronchi with increased rate and depth of respiration
Quiz 1. You are the nurse teaching a pregnant woman about how to prevent teratogenicity. Which of the following would you include in your teaching:

a. Advise the pregnant woman that any medication may have possible effects on the baby

b. Weigh the actual benefits against the potential risks

c. Discuss with the pregnant woman that she should not take medications without checking with their Health care provider first

d. all of the above
Answer is Option A: Schedule I. e.g. heroin and ecstasy.

Option B: Schedule II: high abuse risk and severe dependence, but unlike C-1 drugs, has medical usage. e.g. morphine, Ritalin.

Option C: Schedule III: moderate use and low/moderate dependence. e.g. Tylenol w/codeine, ketamine.

Option D: Schedule V: low abuse risk and consist primarily preparations containing limited narcotic quantities. e.g. certain cough syrups