50 terms


american cities experienced tremendous growth between 1865-1900 because peole were drawn from farms in the country to the cities because
available industrial jobs
one of the most important factors leading to increased divorce rate of late 19th century was
stress of urban life
the place offering great opportunities for women in the USA between 1865-1900 was
the big city
one early symbol of the dawning era of US urban consumerism was
the rise of large department stores
"new immigrants" who came to the USA after 1880 were
culturally different from previous immigrants (old were northern european protestants and new were southern and eastern europeans-such as Italians and Poles who brought anarchy and socialism)
most italian immigrants cam to escape
poverty and underdevelopment (backwardness)
"birds of passage"
immigrant who came to the US to work for a short time and then return home (Europe etc..)
most new immigrants tried to preserve
their old country culture
The "New Immigrants" who came to USA after 1880
were from S & E Europe (not northern Protestant Euro's), tended to settle in NE cities like Boston, NY, Philadelphia, etc..., & were largely Roman Catholic or Jewish (many pogroms - violent acts directed at Jews) in E Europe, like Russia ( a "push" factor like war, refugee, famine, discrimination, etc...), primarily sought economic opportunity (the
"pull" factor), & had been highly mobile even before coming to the USA
Many native born Americans tended to blame "New Immigrants" for
corruption of city gov't, lower industrial
wages (b/c of some much cheap, unskilled labor available), degradation of life in US cities, & importing alien social & economic doctrines (like anarchism & socialism)
by 1900 congressional legislation barred the _ and _ from immigrating to the US
chinese and contract laborers
Labor unions favored immigration restriction b/c
most immigrants were not opposed to factory labor, used as scabs/strikebreakers, willing to work for lower wages, difficult to unionize, and non-English speaking
The American Protective Association (APA) opposed
immigration, - supported immigration restrictions to support labor in USA (like a labor tariff)
Religious denomination that responded most favorably to "New Immigration"
Roman Catholics Why? B/c many were Catholics from Ireland, Italy, and other nations.
New urban environment - most liberal Protestants - rejected
Biblical literalism & adapted religious ideas to
modern culture (the way Darwin intended)
Late 19th century, orthodox Protestant churches were challenged by
- Darwin's theory, mounting emphasis on
materialism (consumerism), social doctrines of Catholicism & Judaism
Darwinian theory of organic evolution through natural selection ("survival of the fittest") affected US religion
creating a split between religious conservatives who denied evolution and "accomodationists" who supported it
Settlement Houses such as Hull House engaged in
child care, English instruction, cultural activities, social reform lobbying (no instruction in socialism)
In the 1890s, positions for women as secretaries, department store clerks, and/or telephone operators were largely reserved for
native born (white) women
The new, research-oriented, modern American university tended to
deemphasize religious & moral instruction
in favor of practical subjects & professional specialization
The "pragmatists" were a school of American philosophers who emphasized
the provisional & fallible nature of knowledge & valued ideas that (practically) solved problems
Americans offered growing support for a free public education system bc
people accepted the idea that a free
& democratic gov't cannot function w/out educated citizens
Post-Civil War era witnessed
an increase in compulsory (mandatory) school attendance laws
Booker T. Washington believed the key to political & civil rights for Af-Am's was
economic independence
Af-Am leader, Booker T. Washington promoted
black self-help but did not challenge segregation
W E B Du Bois
- "talented tenth" of Af-Am's should lead the race to full social & political equality
(Washington vs Du Bois) accepted Jim Crow but sought economic equality & independence; demanded total equality immediately
Washington, Du Bois
helped start the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People - NAACP
Du Bois
Morrill Act of 1862
granted public lands to states to support higher education (creating state universities through gov't land grants - research oriented & trained military too)
In decades after Civil War, college education for women increased
1 in 4 graduates were women
Major research universities founded after the Civil War
University of California (Davis), Johns Hopkins, University of Chicago (Rockefeller), Stanford (jr)
During the industrial revolution, life expectancy
measurably increased (eventually for most all in society)
The public library movement in Gilded Age USA greatly aided by generous philanthropy of
Andrew Carnegie
American newspapers expanded circulation & public attention by
printing sensationalist stories of sex and scandal (like today) [Called "Yellow Journalism" - Pulitzer's newspaper's "Yellow Kid" - Pulitzer & Hearst]
Henry George believed the root of social inequality & social injustice lay in
landowners who gained unearned money from rising land values - wrote Progress and Poverty - argued windfall real estate profits caused by rising land prices should be - taxed at 100% rate by gov't (& used to help the poor)
Gen. Lewis Wallace's book Ben Hur
defended Christianity against Darwinism
American novelists' turn from romanticism & transcendentalism to rugged social realism reflected
materialism (consumerism) & conflicts of new industrial society
Authors who reflected increased attention on social problems by those from less affluence in late 19th century
Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens), William Dean Howells, Stephen Crane (The Red Badge of Courage), Kate Chopin
Late 19th century novels often pusued themes of
social problems & conflict, the American West, corrupting influences of the city, & dilemmas of the "new woman"
1865-1900, changes in sexual attitudes & practices were reflected
- soaring (higher) divorce rates, spreading
practice of birth control (Comstock & Sanger), more frank (open) sexual discussion, & more women working outside of the home
In course of late 19th century, family size
gradually decreased
By 1900, advocates for women's suffrage
argued vote enabled women to extend roles as mothers & homemakers in public world - not as equals to men and therefore deserving - this was a strategic shift from earlier emphasis on equality
National American Women Suffrage Association (NAWSA)
- limited its membership to whites only
Carrie Chapman Catt (new head of NAWSA) argued women should be granted suffrage b/c
in city, women needed to affect such issues as public health & education & suffrage was a logical extension of a women's traditional role/"sphere" ("cult of domesticity") in caring for the home & family - not equality w/ men - a shift away from past arguments for women's suffrage
Growing prohibition/temperance movement especially reflected the concerns of
many middle class women (Husbands often drank away paycheck &/or w/ prostitutes)
Term "Richardson" in late 19th century pertained to
During industrialization, Americans increasingly
shared a common & standard popular culture
Leading pastimes of late 19th century included
- bicycling, watching college football, watching baseball, the circus (P.T. Barnum - walked elephants across the new Brooklyn Bridge - suspension steel cable bridge -many people did not trust it at first), & vaudeville (variety acts such as comedians, acrobats, jugglers)
Sports developed after the Civil War
basketball, bicycling (huge craze once "safety bicycle" was invented - Wright Brothers owned a bicycle shop in Dayton, Ohio), croquet, college football (very dangerous compared to today b/c of rules not yet applied, lack of protection)
By 1900, American cities were becoming
heavily populated, segregated by race & ethnicity (neighborhoods), & more homogenous