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american cities experienced tremendous growth between 1865-1900 because peole were drawn from farms in the country to the cities because

available industrial jobs

one of the most important factors leading to increased divorce rate of late 19th century was

stress of urban life

the place offering great opportunities for women in the USA between 1865-1900 was

the big city

one early symbol of the dawning era of US urban consumerism was

the rise of large department stores

"new immigrants" who came to the USA after 1880 were

culturally different from previous immigrants (old were northern european protestants and new were southern and eastern europeans-such as Italians and Poles who brought anarchy and socialism)

most italian immigrants cam to escape

poverty and underdevelopment (backwardness)

"birds of passage"

immigrant who came to the US to work for a short time and then return home (Europe etc..)

most new immigrants tried to preserve

their old country culture

The "New Immigrants" who came to USA after 1880

were from S & E Europe (not northern Protestant Euro's), tended to settle in NE cities like Boston, NY, Philadelphia, etc..., & were largely Roman Catholic or Jewish (many pogroms - violent acts directed at Jews) in E Europe, like Russia ( a "push" factor like war, refugee, famine, discrimination, etc...), primarily sought economic opportunity (the
"pull" factor), & had been highly mobile even before coming to the USA

Many native born Americans tended to blame "New Immigrants" for

corruption of city gov't, lower industrial
wages (b/c of some much cheap, unskilled labor available), degradation of life in US cities, & importing alien social & economic doctrines (like anarchism & socialism)

by 1900 congressional legislation barred the _ and _ from immigrating to the US

chinese and contract laborers

Labor unions favored immigration restriction b/c

most immigrants were not opposed to factory labor, used as scabs/strikebreakers, willing to work for lower wages, difficult to unionize, and non-English speaking

The American Protective Association (APA) opposed

immigration, - supported immigration restrictions to support labor in USA (like a labor tariff)

Religious denomination that responded most favorably to "New Immigration"

Roman Catholics Why? B/c many were Catholics from Ireland, Italy, and other nations.

New urban environment - most liberal Protestants - rejected

Biblical literalism & adapted religious ideas to
modern culture (the way Darwin intended)

Late 19th century, orthodox Protestant churches were challenged by

- Darwin's theory, mounting emphasis on
materialism (consumerism), social doctrines of Catholicism & Judaism

Darwinian theory of organic evolution through natural selection ("survival of the fittest") affected US religion

creating a split between religious conservatives who denied evolution and "accomodationists" who supported it

Settlement Houses such as Hull House engaged in

child care, English instruction, cultural activities, social reform lobbying (no instruction in socialism)

In the 1890s, positions for women as secretaries, department store clerks, and/or telephone operators were largely reserved for

native born (white) women

The new, research-oriented, modern American university tended to

deemphasize religious & moral instruction
in favor of practical subjects & professional specialization

The "pragmatists" were a school of American philosophers who emphasized

the provisional & fallible nature of knowledge & valued ideas that (practically) solved problems

Americans offered growing support for a free public education system bc

people accepted the idea that a free
& democratic gov't cannot function w/out educated citizens

Post-Civil War era witnessed

an increase in compulsory (mandatory) school attendance laws

Booker T. Washington believed the key to political & civil rights for Af-Am's was

economic independence

Af-Am leader, Booker T. Washington promoted

black self-help but did not challenge segregation

W E B Du Bois

- "talented tenth" of Af-Am's should lead the race to full social & political equality

(Washington vs Du Bois) accepted Jim Crow but sought economic equality & independence; demanded total equality immediately

Washington, Du Bois

helped start the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People - NAACP

Du Bois

Morrill Act of 1862

granted public lands to states to support higher education (creating state universities through gov't land grants - research oriented & trained military too)

In decades after Civil War, college education for women increased

1 in 4 graduates were women

Major research universities founded after the Civil War

University of California (Davis), Johns Hopkins, University of Chicago (Rockefeller), Stanford (jr)

During the industrial revolution, life expectancy

measurably increased (eventually for most all in society)

The public library movement in Gilded Age USA greatly aided by generous philanthropy of

Andrew Carnegie

American newspapers expanded circulation & public attention by

printing sensationalist stories of sex and scandal (like today) [Called "Yellow Journalism" - Pulitzer's newspaper's "Yellow Kid" - Pulitzer & Hearst]

Henry George believed the root of social inequality & social injustice lay in

landowners who gained unearned money from rising land values - wrote Progress and Poverty - argued windfall real estate profits caused by rising land prices should be - taxed at 100% rate by gov't (& used to help the poor)

Gen. Lewis Wallace's book Ben Hur

defended Christianity against Darwinism

American novelists' turn from romanticism & transcendentalism to rugged social realism reflected

materialism (consumerism) & conflicts of new industrial society

Authors who reflected increased attention on social problems by those from less affluence in late 19th century

Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens), William Dean Howells, Stephen Crane (The Red Badge of Courage), Kate Chopin

Late 19th century novels often pusued themes of

social problems & conflict, the American West, corrupting influences of the city, & dilemmas of the "new woman"

1865-1900, changes in sexual attitudes & practices were reflected

- soaring (higher) divorce rates, spreading
practice of birth control (Comstock & Sanger), more frank (open) sexual discussion, & more women working outside of the home

In course of late 19th century, family size

gradually decreased

By 1900, advocates for women's suffrage

argued vote enabled women to extend roles as mothers & homemakers in public world - not as equals to men and therefore deserving - this was a strategic shift from earlier emphasis on equality

National American Women Suffrage Association (NAWSA)

- limited its membership to whites only

Carrie Chapman Catt (new head of NAWSA) argued women should be granted suffrage b/c

in city, women needed to affect such issues as public health & education & suffrage was a logical extension of a women's traditional role/"sphere" ("cult of domesticity") in caring for the home & family - not equality w/ men - a shift away from past arguments for women's suffrage

Growing prohibition/temperance movement especially reflected the concerns of

many middle class women (Husbands often drank away paycheck &/or w/ prostitutes)

Term "Richardson" in late 19th century pertained to


During industrialization, Americans increasingly

shared a common & standard popular culture

Leading pastimes of late 19th century included

- bicycling, watching college football, watching baseball, the circus (P.T. Barnum - walked elephants across the new Brooklyn Bridge - suspension steel cable bridge -many people did not trust it at first), & vaudeville (variety acts such as comedians, acrobats, jugglers)

Sports developed after the Civil War

basketball, bicycling (huge craze once "safety bicycle" was invented - Wright Brothers owned a bicycle shop in Dayton, Ohio), croquet, college football (very dangerous compared to today b/c of rules not yet applied, lack of protection)

By 1900, American cities were becoming

heavily populated, segregated by race & ethnicity (neighborhoods), & more homogenous

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