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lymphocyte production; involves the bone marrow, thymus, and peripheral lymphoid tissues

lymphoid tissues

connective tissues dominated by lymphocytes

lymphoid nodule

an area of loose connective tissue where lymphocytes are densely packed

important lymphoid nodules

aggregated lymphoid nodules - tonsils and appendix

where is the appendix

beneath the lining of the intestine

where are the tonsils

in the walls of the pharynx

important lymphoid organs

lymph nodes, thymus, spleen

lymph nodes

encapsulated masses of lymphoid tissue

divisions of lymph nodes

deep cortex, outer cortex, medulla

what dominates deep cortex?

T cells

what do outer cortex and medulla contain?

B cells arranged into medullary cords

lymph glands

the largest lymph nodes

where are lymph glands found?

where peripheral lymphatics connect with the trunk

where are lymph nodes found?

throughout the body, with the exception of the brain

where are lymphoid tissues and nodes located?

in areas particularly susceptible to injury or invasion by microorganisms

lymph nodes that serve to protect vulnerable areas of the body?

1. cervical lymph nodes, 2. axillary lymph nodes, 3. popliteal lymph nodes, 4. inguinal lymph nodes, 5. thoracic lymph nodes, 6. abdominal lymph nodes, 7. intestinal lymph nodes, 8. mesenterical lymph nodes

glands that are checked during medical examination to determine infection?

cervical, parotid, submandibular, and submental

where is the thymus located?

posterior to the manubrium, in the posterior mediastinum

what produces thymic hormones?

epithelial cells scattered among the lymphocytes

what do thymic hormones do?

promote the differentiation of T cells

blood-thymus barrier

prevents free exchange between the interstitial fluid and the circulation, protecting the T cells from being prematurely activated


process by which the size of the thymus gradually decreases after puberty


contains the largest mass of lymphoid tissue in the body (ADULT); performs same functions for the blood that lymph nodes perform for the lymph

where in the body does the diaphragmatic surface of the spleen lie?

against the diaphragm

visceral surface of the spleen

lies against the stomach and kidney; contains a groove called the hilus


formed by cellular components of the spleen

red pulp

pulp that contains large amounts of red blood cells

white pulp

pulp that resembles lymphatic nodules

what does the region surrounding white pulp contain?

large concentration of macrophages

what is scattered throughout the red pulp?



often caused by infection, inflammation, cancer

what clinical symptoms indicate a blockage in right lymphatic duct?

edema of the right arm and upper chest

what happens to immune system with age?

becomes less effective at combating disease

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