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Sociology Midterm ( Chapters 1-9)
Terms in this set (193)
The study of human society.
The ability to connect the most basic, intimate aspects of an individual's life to seemingly impersonal and remote historical forces.
A complex group of interdependent positions that together, perform a social role and reproduce themselves over time; also defined in a narrow sense as any institution in a society that works to shape the behavior of the groups or people within it.
German for "understanding". The concept comes from Max Weber and is the basis of interpretive sociology in which researchers imagine themselves experiencing the life positions of the social actors they want to understand rather than treating those people as objects to be examined
A sense of aimlessness or despair that arises when we can no longer reasonably expect life to be predictable; too little social regulation; normlessness
A strain within sociology that believes the social world can be described and predicted by certain describable relationships ( akin to a social physics).
A concept conceived by W.E.B Du Bois to describe the two behavioral scripts, one for moving through the world and the other incorporating the external opinions of prejudiced onlookers, which are constantly maintained by African Americans.
The theory that various social institutions and processes in society exist to serve some important ( or necessary) function to keep society running.
The idea that conflicts between competing interests is the basic, animating force of social change and society in general.
A micro-level theory in which shared meanings, orientations, and assumptions form the basic motivations behind people's actions.
A condition characterized by a questioning of the notion of progress and history, the replacement of narrative within pastiche, and multiple, perhaps even conflicting, identities resulting from disjointed affiliations.
An entity that exists because people behave as if it exists and whose existence is perpetuated as people and social institutions act in accordance with the widely agreed-upon formal rules or informal norms of behavior associated with that entity.
A theory that attempts to predict how certain social institutions tend to function.
A branch of sociology that seeks to understand local international contexts, it methods of choice are ethnographic, generally including participant observation and in-depth interviews.
A branch of sociology generally concerned with social dynamics at a higher level of analysis - that is across the breadth of a society.
Approaches that social scientists use for investigating the answers to questions.
Methods that seek obtain information about the social world that is already in or can be converted to numeric form.
Methods that attempt to collect information about the social world that cannot be readily converted to numeric form.
A research approach that starts with a theory, forma s hypothesis, makes empirical observations, ant then analyzes the data to confirm, reject, or modify the original theory.
A research approach that starts with empirical observations and then works to form a theory.
Simultaneous variation in two variables.
The notion that a change in one factor results in a corresponding change in another.
A situation in which the researcher believes that A results in a change in B, but B, in fact, is causing A.
The outcome that the researcher is trying to explain.
A measured factor that the researcher believes has a casual impact on the dependent variable.
A proposed relationship between two variables.
The process of assigning a precise method for measuring a term being examined for use in a particular study.
The extent to which an instrument measures what it is intended to measure.
The likelihood of obtaining consistent results using the same measure.
The extent to which we can claim our findings inform us about a group larger than the one we studied.
Analyzing and critically considering our own in , and effect on ,our research.
A set of systems or methods that treat women's experiences as legitimate empirical and theoretical resources, that promote social science for women ( think public sociology, but for a specific half of the public), and that take into account the researcher as much as the overt subject matter.
An entire group of individual persons, objects, or items from which samples may drawn.
The subset of the population from which you are actually collecting data.
An intensive investigation of one particular unit of analysis in order to describe it or uncover its mechanisms.
A qualitative research method that seeks to uncover the meaning people give their social actions by observing their behavior in practice.
An ordered series of questions intended to elicit information from respondents.
Research that collects data from written reports, newspaper articles, journals, transcripts, television programs, diaries, artwork, and other artifacts that date back to the period under study.
A methodology by which two or more entities ( such as countries), which are similar in many dimensions but differ on one in question, are compared to learn about the dimension that differs between them.
A systematic analysis of the content rather than the structure of a communication, such as a written work, speech, or film.
Methods that seek to alter the social landscape in a very specific way for a given sample of individuals and then track what results that change yields; often involve comparisons to a control group that did not experience such an intervention.
A set of beliefs, traditions, and practices; the sum of the social categories and concepts we embrace in addition to beliefs , behaviors ( except instinctual ones), and practices; everything but the natural environment around us.
The belief that one's own culture or group is superior to others, and the tendency to view all other cultures from the perspective of one's own.
Values, beliefs, behaviors, and social norms.
Everything that is a part of our constructed, physical environment, including technology.
A system of concepts and relationships, and understanding of cause and effect.
taking into account the differences across cultures without passing judgement or assigning value.
modes of behavior and understanding that are not universal or natural.
The distinct cultural values and behavioral patterns of a particular group in society; a group united by sets of concepts, values, symbols, and shared meaning specific to the members of that group distinctive enough to distinguish it from others within the same culture of society.
How values tell us to behave.
The process which individuals internalize the values, beliefs, and norms of a given society and learn to function as members of that society.
The idea that culture is a projection of social structures and relationships into the public sphere, a screen onto which the film of the underlying reality or social structures of a society is projected.
Any formats, platforms, or vehicles that carry, present, or communicate information.
A condition by which a dominant group uses its power to elicit the voluntary "consent" of the masses.
The steady acquisition of material possessions, often with the belief that happiness and fulfillment can thus be achieved.
The act of turning media against themselves.
The individual identity of a person as perceived by that same person.
one's sense of agency, action, or power.
The self as perceived as an object by the "I"; the self as one imagines others perceive one.
someone or something outside of oneself.
An internalized sense of the total expectations of others in a variety of settings - regardless of whether we've encountered those people or places before.
The process by which one's sense of social values, beliefs, and norms are reengineered, often deliberately, through an intense social process that may take place in a total institution.
An institution in which one is totally immersed and that controls all the basics of day-to-day life; no barriers exist between the usual spheres of daily life, and all activity occurs in the same place and under the same single authority.
A recognizable social position that an individual occupies.
The duties and behaviors expected of someone who holds a particular status.
The incompatibility among corresponding to a single status.
The tension caused by competing demands between two or more roles pertaining to different statuses.
All the statuses one holds simultaneously.
A status into which one is born, involuntary status.
A status into which one enters; voluntary status.
One status within a set that stands out or overrides all others.
Sets of behavioral norms assumed to accompany one's status as male or female
The view ( advanced by Erving Goffman) of social life as essentially a theatrical performance, in which we are all actors on metaphorical stages, with roles, scripts, costumes, and sets.
The esteem in which an individual is held by others.
Literally, " the methods of the people", this approach to studying human interaction focuses on the ways in which we make sense of our world, convey this understanding to others, and produce a shared social order.
A group of two.
A group of three.
The member if a triad who attempts to resolve conflict between the two other actors in the group.
The member of a triad who benefits from conflict between the other two members of the group.
Divide et impera
The role of a member of a triad who intentionally drives a wedge between the other two actors in the group.
A group characterized by face to face interaction, a unifocal perspect, lack of formal arrangements or roles, and a certain level of equality.
a group that is similar to a small group but is multifocal.
A group characterized by the presence of a formal structure that mediates interaction and, consequently, status differentiation.
Social groups, such as family or friends composed of enduring, intimate face to face relationships that strongly influence the attitudes and ideals of those involved.
Groups marked by impersonal, impersonal, instrumental relationships ( those existing as a means to an end).
Another term for the powerful group, most often the majority.
Another term for the stigmatized or less powerful group, the minority.
A group that helps us understand or make sense of our position in society relative to other groups.
A set of relations- essentially, a set of dyads- held together by ties between individuals.
The connection between two people in a relationship that varies in strength from one relationship to the next; a story that explains our relationship with another member of our network.
The sum of stories contained in a set of ties.
The degree to which ties are reinforced through indirect paths within a social network.
Strength of weak ties
The notion that relatively weak ties often turn out to be quite valuable because they yield new information.
A gap between network clusters, or even two individuals ( or clusters) have complementary resources.
The information knowledge of people or things, and connections that help individuals enter, gain power in, or otherwise leverage social networks.
Any social network that is defined by a common purpose and has boundary between its membership and the rest of the social world.
The shared beliefs and behaviors within a social group; often used interchangeably with corporate culture.
The ways in which power and authority are distributed within an organization.
A constraining process that forces one unit in a population to resemble other units that face the same set of environmental conditions.
Any transgression of socially established norms.
The violation of laws enacted by society.
Social bonds, how well people to each other and get along on a day to day basis.
Mechanical/ Segmental solidarity
Social cohesion based on sameness.
Social cohesion based on difference and interdependence of the parts.
Mechanisms that create normative compliance in individuals.
Formal Social Sanctions
Mechanisms of social control by which rules or laws prohibit deviant criminal behavior.
Informal Social Sanctions
The usually unexpressed but widely known rules of group membership;the unspoken rules of social life.
How well you are integrated into your social group or community.
The number of rules guiding your daily life and, more specifically, what you can reasonably expect from the world on a day to a day basis.
Suicide that occurs when one is not well integrated into a social group.
Suicide that occurs when one experiences too much social integration.
Suicide that occurs as a result of insufficient social regulation.
Suicide that occurs as a result of too much social regulation.
Robert Merton's theory that deviance occurs when a society does not give all of its members equal ability to achieve socially acceptable goals.
Individual who accepts both the goals wand strategies to achieve them that are considered socially acceptable.
Individual who rejects socially defined goals but not the means.
Social deviant who accepts socially acceptable goals but rejects socially acceptable means to achieve them.
One who rejects both socially acceptable means and goals by completely retreating from, or not participating in society.
Individual who rejects both traditional goals and traditional means and wants to alter or destroy the social institutions from which he or she is alienated.
The belief that individuals subconsciously notice how other see or label them, and their reactions to those labels over time form the basis of their self-identity.
The first act of rule breaking that may incur a label of "deviant" and thus influence how people think about and act toward you.
Subsequent acts of the rule breaking that occur after primary deviance and as a result of your new deviant label and people's expectations of you.
A negative social label that not only changes others' behavior toward a person but also alters that person's pwn self-concept and social identity.
Broken Windows Theory of Deviance
Theory explaining how social context and social cues impact whether individuals act deviantly, specifically, whether local, informal social norms allow deviant acts.
Crime committed in public and often associated with violence, gangs, and poverty.
White Collar Crime
Offence committed by a professional ( or professionals) against a corporation, agency, or other institution.
A particular type of white-collar crime committed by the officers ( CEOs and other executives) of a corporation.
Philosophy of criminal justice arising from the notion that crime results from a rational calculation of its coasts and benefits.
When an individual who has been involved with the criminal justice system reverts to criminal behavior.
Circular building composed of an inner ring and an outer ring designed to serve as a prison in which the guards, housed in the inner ring, can observe the prisoners without the detainees knowing whether they are being watched.
A condition in which no differences in wealth, power, prestige, or status based on nonnatural conventions exist.
A two-directional relationship, following a pattern in which an original statement or thesis is countered with an antithesis leading to a conclusion that unites the strengths of the original position and the counterarguments.
Equality if Oppurtunity
The idea that everyone has an equal chance to achieve wealth, social prestige, and power because the rules of the game, so to speak, are the same for everyone.
A society of commerce ( modern capitalist society, for example) in which the maximization of profit is the primary business incentive.
Equality of Condition
The idea that everyone should have an equal starting point.
Equality of outcome
The idea that each player must end up with the same amount regardless of the fairness of the " game".
Free Rider Problem
The notion that when more than one person is responsible for getting something done, the incentive is for each individual to shirk responsibility and hope others will put the extra weight.
Politically based system of stratification characteristically by limited social mobility.
A religion based system of stratification characterized by no social mobility.
An economically based hierarchical l system characterized by cohesive, oppositional groups and somewhat loose social mobility.
The working class
The capitalist class
Contradictory Class location
The idea that people can occupy locations in the class structure that fall between the two "pure" classes.
Status Hierarchical system
A system of stratification based on social prestige.
Elite-mass dichotomy system
A system of stratification that has a governing elite, a few leaders who broadly hold power in society.
A society where status and mobility are based on individual attributes, ability, and achievement.
An individual's position in a stratified social order.
Money received by a person for work, from transfers ( gifts, inheritiances, or governments assistance), or from returns on investments.
A family's or individual's net worth ( that is, total assets minus total debts).
A term for the economic elite.
A term commonly used to describe those individuals with nonmanual jobs that pay significantly more than the poverty line - through this is a highly debated and expensive category, particularly in the United States, where broad swathes of population consider themselves middle class.
The movement between different positions within a system of social stratification in any given society.
Mobility that is inevitable from changes in the economy.
Mobility in which, if we hold fixed the changing distribution of jobs, individuals trade not one to one but in a way that ultimately balances out.
Status Attainment Model
Approach that ranks individuals by socioeconomic status, including income and educational attainment, and seeks to specify the attributes characteristics of people who end up in more desirable occupation.
Consciousness raising movement to get people to understand that gender is an organizing principle of life. The underlying belief is that women and men should be accorded equal oppurtunites and respect.
The biological differences that distinguish males from females.
Desire, Sexual preference, and sexual identity and behavior.
A social position; the set of social arrangements that are built around normative sex categories.
A line of thought that explains social phenomena in terms of natural ones.
A line of thought that explains social behavior in terms of who you are in the natural world.
The condition in which men are dominant and privileged, and this dominance and privilege is invisible.
Sets of behavioral norms assumed to accompany one's status as a male or female.
A nearly universal system involving the subordination of femininity to masculinity
Theoretical tradition claiming that every society has certain structures ( the family, the division of labor, gender) that exists to fulfill some set of necessary functions ( reproduction of the species, production of goods, etc.)
Sex Role Theory
Talcott Parson's theory that men and women perform their sex roles as breadwinners and wives/mothers, respectively, because the nuclear family is the ideal arrangement in modern societies, fulfilling the function of reproducing workers.
The social identity of a person who has sexual attraction to and/or relations with other persons of the same sex.
Occurs when a person's sex or gender is the basis for judgement, discrimination, and hatred against him or her.
An illegal form of discrimination, involving everything from inappropriate jokes on the job to outright sexual assault to sexual "barter" - all intended to make women feel uncomfortable and unwelcome, particularly on the job.
An invisible limit on women's climb up the occupational ladder.
The accelerated promotion of men to the top of a work organization, especially in feminized jobs.
The belief that members of separate races possess different and unequal traits.
Nineteenth century theories of race that characterizes a period of feverish investigation into the origins, explanations, and classifications of race.
The philosophical and religious notion that all people are created equal.
The application of Darwinian ideas to society - namely, the evolutionary " survival of the fittest".
Literally meaning "well born", a pseudoscience that postulates that controlling the fertility of populations could influence inheritable traits passed on form generation to generation.
The movement to protect and preserve indigenous land or culture from the allegedly dangerous and polluting effects of new immigrants.
The belief that "one drop" of black blood makes a person a black, a concept that evolved from U.S. laws forbidding miscegenation.
The technical term for interracial marriage, literally meaning " a mixing of kinds"; it is politically and historically charged- sociologists generally prefer exogamy or outmarriage.
The formation of a new racial identity by drawing ideological boundaries of difference around a formerly unnoticed group of people.
One's ethnic quality or affiliation. It is voluntary, self-defined, nonhierarchical, fluid and multiple, and based on cultural differences, not physical ones per se.
A nationality, not in the sense of carrying the rights and duties of citizenship but for identifying with a past or future nationality. For later generations of white ethnics, something not constraining but easily expressed, with no risks of stigma and all the pleasures of feeling like an individual.
Robert Park's 1920s universal and linear model for how immigrants assimilate: they first arrive, then settle in, and achieve full assimilation in a newly homogeneous country.
Clifford Geertz's term to explain the strength of ethnic ties because they are fixed in deeply felt or primordial ties to one's homeland culture.
The presence and engaged coexistence of numerous distinct groups in one society.
The legal or social practice of separating people on the basis of their race or ethnicity.
The mass killing of a group of people based on racial, ethnic, or religious traits.
A subordinate, oppressed group of people.
An organized effort to change a power hierarchy on the part of a less-powerful group in a society.
Thoughts and feeling about an ethnic or racial group.
Harmful or negative acts ( not mere thoughts) against people deemed inferior on the basis of their racial category, without regard to their individual merit.
Institutions and social dynamics that may seem race-neutral but actually disadvantage minority groups.
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