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42 terms

8th Science: Spring Final Exam Review

STUDY
PLAY
Endothermic
Chemical reaction in which energy is absorbed (gets colder).
Exothermic
Chemical reaction in which heat energy is released (gets hotter).
Electron
Negatively charged particle that exists in a cloud around an atom's nucleus.
Proton
Positively charged particle in the nucleus of an atom.
Nucleus
Consists of protons & neutrons. Has a MUCH GREATER mass than the electrons.
Force
A push or pull; has a size and direction.
Period
Horizontal row of elements in the periodic table whose properties change gradually and predictably.
Group
Vertical column of elements in the periodic table that have similar physical or chemical properties.
Reactant
Substance that exists before a chemical reaction begins (on the left in an equation).
Product
Substance that forms as a result of a chemical reaction (the arrow points toward it).
Phenotype
Observable product of genetic makeup and the environment's influence (what you see).
Genotype
Genes that an organism has - its genetic makeup (the actual letters).
Neither created nor destroyed.
The law of conservation of mass states that matter is _______.
Conduction
Transfer of energy from two materials touching.
Convection
Transfer of heat by the flow of material.
Radiation
Energy transferred by waves or rays.
Faster
Light waves travel ___________ than sound waves.
Microscope
What scientific tool is important when you are observing cells?
Weathering & Erosion
What two processes break down rocks, eventually forming sedimentary rocks?
Away
Some scientists believe in the Big Bang Theory because they can see the red shift, which shows galaxies are moving ______ from each other.
Add
When two or more forces are acting on an object in the SAME direction, you ______ them.
Subtract
When two forces are acting on an object in OPPOSITE directions, you ______ them. The larger force will "win", and the object will accelerate in the direction of that force.
Diagonally
If one force is acting on an object in a horizontal direction and another force is acting on the object in a vertical direction, the object will end up being pushed _________.
Radioactive
All atoms have protons, electrons, and a nucleus, but NOT all atoms are ___________.
High melting point
A physical property that allows metals to be heated up a lot without melting.
Decreases
Planting trees __________ the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
Light-year
The distance that light travels in one year.
Chemical
Burning, changing temperature, and giving off bubbles are all indicators of a _________ change.
Sediments
In the rock cycle, igneous rock slowly weathers and erodes, breaking down into ___________.
Convection currents
The force that causes continental plates to move.
Subduction
In plate tectonics, when one plate collides with another and plunges downward.
Sea-floor spreading
Causes new oceanic crust to be formed. Occurs at rifts in the oceans.
Condensation
In the water cycle, this happens when water molecules in the air come together to form clouds.
Precipitation
In the water cycle, this happens when it rains, snows, sleets, or hails.
Evaporation
In the water cycle, this happens when liquid water molecules turn into gas and enter the atmosphere.
Winter
When the Earth's axis is tilted away from the Sun, it is ___________ in the northern hemisphere.
Summer
When the Earth's axis is tilted toward the Sun, it is ___________ in the northern hemisphere.
Average
Weather is day-to-day, but climate is a long-term ________.
Amplitude
The height of a wavelength from the mid-point up to the crest (or down to the trough).
Wavelength
The distance from one crest to the next (or one trough to the next) on a wave.
Crest
The top of a wave.
Trough
The bottom of a wave.