Ecology: The Economy of Nature Ch.7
Terms in this set (40)
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
A molecule composed of two strands of nucleotides that are wound together into a shape known as a double helix. (contains a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base, (Adenine A)(Thymine T)(Cytosine C)(Guanine G)
Compact structures consisting of long strands of DNA that are wound around Proteins
Different forms of a particular gene that may (or may not) produce a different protein/trait.
Section of DNA that codes for a particular protein (or Trait)
When a single trait is affected by several genes.
When a single gene affects multiple traits
From sexual individuals, two copies of each gene (mother, father)
When the expression of one gene is controlled by another gene.
When an individual has two different alleles of a particular gene
When an individual has two identical alleles of a a particular gene
One allele masks the expression of another allele.
An allele whose expression is masked by the presence of another allele
Two alleles both contribute to the phenotype
The collection of alleles from all individuals in a population
The process of making haploid gametes in which the combination of alleles that are placed into a given gamete could be any combination of those possessed by the diploid parent (Sexual reproduction)
A random change in the sequence of nucleotides in regions of DNA that either comprise a gene or control the expression of a gene.
The reshuffling of genes that can occur as DNA is copied during meiosis and chromosomes exchange genetic material. ( Between homologous chromosomes during meiosis due to crossing over)
A process that occurs when genetic variation is lost because of random variation in mating, mortality, fecundity, and inheritance.(more common in small populations)
The changes in the presence and proportions of different alleles in a population
Loss of genetic diversity in a population due to a large reduction in population size
When a small number of individuals leave a large population to colonize a new area and bring with them only a small amount of genetic variation
Occurs when individuals leave one population and enter another, bringing their alleles along and contributing them to future generations.
The process by which certain phenotypes are favored to survive and reproduce over other phenotypes
When individuals with intermediate phenotypes have higher survival and reproductive success than those withe extreme phenotypes (Narrow dist)(little ev. change) (occurs when environment is unchanging)
When individuals with at one extreme phenotype experience higher fitness than the average phenotype of the population or phenotypes at the other extreme (move mean to left or right)
Individuals with either extreme phenotype experience higher fitness than individuals with an intermediate phenotype. (increases phenotypic variation) Bimodal
Strength of Selection
The difference between the mean of the phenotypic distribution before selection and the mean after selection, measured in units of standard deviations
The proportion of the total phenotypic variation that is caused by genetic variation .
the evolution of populations; affected by random processes and selection
Selection in which humans decide which individuals will breed; breeding is usually done with a preconceived goal for the traits in the population
Favors trait combinations that provide higher fitness to an individual
individuals interact with their environment, and traits lead to greater fitness in an environment are passed on.
Industrial activities can cause habitats to become darker due to pollution; individuals possessing darker phenotypes favored by selection.
Response to selection
R=Sxh^2 S= strength of selection, h^2 = irritability
Evolution at higher levels of organization including species, genera, families, orders, and phyla.
The evolution of a new species
the evolution of new species through the process of geographic isolation
The evolution of new species without geographic isolation.
Hypothesized patterns of relatedness among different groups such as populations, species, or genera
A species that contains three or more sets of chromosomes. It is unable to mate with a diploid and is genetically distinct from its parents. widespread in plants ( produce larger flowers and fruits, exposing plants to cold temp at time of rep. inc. chance of diploid gametes.
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