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Psy 251 Exam 1

STUDY
PLAY
Modern technology has provided us with many time-saving devices, but
we still complain about not having enough time.
In spite of countless time-saving devices—automobiles, telephones, photocopiers, fax machines, and so on—most of us complain about a relative lack of
time.
Modern Western society has made extraordinary technological progress
but social and personal problems seem more prevalent and more prominent than ever before.
According to Schwartz, increased freedom of choice available in modern societies
has contributed to depression and anxiety.
Technology has enabled humankind to exercise unprecedented control over many aspects of the physical world but at the same time has also created serious
environmental problems.
__________________ refers to the idea that technological advances have NOT led to perceptible improvement in our collective health and happiness.
The paradox of progress
Most experts characterize "self-realization" programs (e.g., est training, Silva Mind Control) as
intellectually bankrupt.
While the famous radio talk show host Dr. Laura is a licensed Marriage, Family, and Child Counselor, she holds a doctoral degree in
physiology.
Surveys exploring psychotherapists' opinions of self-help books suggest
there are some excellent books that offer authentic insight and sound advice.
"Psychobabble" is best defined as
ill-defined terminology
Many self-help books
encourage a narcissistic approach to life.
In order to evaluate self-help books for ourselves, we may employ critical thinking. Which of the following is NOT a critical thinking guideline?
Use emotional reasoning.
This text assumes the key to effective adjustment is to
a. take charge of your own life.
b. meet problems head-on.
c. take an active role in improving the quality of your life.
Which of the following are essential guidelines for thinking critically?
1. Define the problem.
2. Avoid emotional reasoning.
3. Analyze biases and assumptions.
4. Use either-or thinking.
c. 1, 2, and 3 only
Which of the following is the best example of "overt" activity?
a. Eating
b. Thinking
c. Dreaming
d. Reasoning
ANS: a
"Any overt response or activity by an organism" defines the term
behavior.
Until the 1950s, psychologists were found almost exclusively in
academic institutions.
The term __________ refers to the psychological processes through which people manage or cope with the demands and challenges of everyday life.
adjustment
The process of adjustment relates to
a. how people deal with stress.
b. behavior in groups.
c. friendship and love
______________ is the premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation.
Empiricism
Which of the following is the basis of empiricism?

a. Correlation
b. Logic
c. Systematic observation
d. Common sense
c. Systematic observation
Compared to other methods of drawing conclusions about behavior, the major advantages of the scientific approach are
clarity and precision; relative intolerance of error.
According to your text, the two main types of research methods in psychology are ______ research methods and ______ research methods.
experimental; correlational
Which of the following best describes correlational research?
a. Exerting experimental control
b. Manipulating an independent variable
c. Manipulating a dependent variable
d. Making systematic observations
d. Making systematic observations
Which of the following correlation coefficients indicates the weakest relationship between two variables?
a. -.36
b. -.97
c. +.75
d. +.15
d. +.15
Correlational research broadens the scope of phenomena beyond experimental research because it
provides a way to investigate variables that cannot be manipulated.
The major disadvantage of correlational research is that it
cannot demonstrate conclusively that two variables are causally related.
The "third variable" problem is associated with
the correlational method.
Empirical surveys consistently find that the vast majority of respondents characterize themselves as
fairly happy.
Which of the following best characterizes the correlation between income and subjective feelings of happiness?
Positive, but weak
Research indicates that
there is no association between IQ and happiness.
Research indicates that
a. married men are happier than married women.
b. married women are happier than married men.
c. both married men and women are happier than unmarried men and women.
d. both unmarried men and women are happier than married men and women.
both married men and women are happier than unmarried men and women.
The authors suggest that we should be careful about drawing conclusions about causes of happiness because
they would be based on correlational data.
An important insight that can be drawn from the research on happiness is that
objective realities are not as important as subjective feelings.
______________ occurs when people shift their own mental scale and change the baseline for comparisons of their own circumstances with those of other people.
Hedonic adaptation
Research indicates that hedonic adaptation
probably helps protect mental and physical health.
When you reward yourself for meeting realistic study goals, you're using the principles of
behavior modification
Most students record ______ of the crucial ideas in a lecture.
c. less than 40%
________________ refers to learning by emphasizing the personal meaningfulness of material that one has learned in a course.
Deep processing
Exercising deep processing means
devoting effort to analyzing the meaning of the reading assignments.
Using "Roy G Biv" to remember the order of colors in the light spectrum is an example of how ______ can help us remember information.
acronyms
Using "Every good boy does fine" to remember the order of musical notes is an example of how ______ can help us remember information.
acrostics
The loci method is a mnemonic device that involves
taking a make-believe walk.
Which of the following ideas lies at the core of the concept of personality?
Consistency across situations
Which of the following ideas is NOT central to the concept of personality?
Traits that are shared with others
Sue's friends say that she is sympathetic, trusting, cooperative, and straightforward. Which of the following "Big Five" traits would best describe her?
Agreeableness
Eric studies three hours per day, five days a week. He only misses school when he is sick and is almost never late for class. On which of the following "Big Five" traits would he likely receive a high score?
Conscientiousness
Which of the following are "Big Five" traits?

a. Neuroticism and intelligence
b. Openness to experience and intelligence
c. Neuroticism and openness to experience
d. Neuroticism, openness to experience, and fortitude
Neuroticism and openness to experience
Research on the Big Five and life outcomes indicates
higher conscientiousness is correlated with higher college grades.
Which of the following statements is NOT true according to Big Five research?
a. Conscientiousness is a positive predictor of longer life.
b. Conscientiousness is a positive predictor of career success.
c. Neuroticism is a positive predictor of career success.
d. Neuroticism is a positive predictor of mental disorders.
c. Neuroticism is a positive predictor of career success.
All psychodynamic theories stem from the work of
Freud.
Which of the following is NOT considered to be a psychodynamic theory of personality?
a. Adler's individual psychology
b. Jung's analytical psychology
c. Freud's theory of psychoanalysis
d. Rogers' client-centered psychology
d. Rogers' client-centered psychology
Psychodynamic theories of personality tend to focus on
unconscious mental processes.
In psychoanalytic theory, the personality component that operates according to the pleasure principle is the
id.
The moral component of personality, according to Freud, is represented by the
superego.
According to Freud, internal conflict among the id, ego, and superego
is routine.
Central to the Freudian conceptualization of personality is
how people cope with their own sexual and aggressive urges
Attributing your own thoughts, feelings, or motives to others to ward off anxiety or guilt is called
projection.
Two months ago, your best friend did not win a major scholarship that she had been counting on to help pay for graduate school. Now she is always fighting with you, her boyfriend, and her roommates. She is most likely using the defense mechanism called
displacement.
In psychoanalytic theory, failure to move forward from one developmental stage to another is called
fixation.
Which of the following is the correct order of Freud's psychosexual stages?

a. Anal, oral, phallic, genital, latency
b. Phallic, anal, oral, latency, genital
c. Oral, genital, phallic, anal, latency
d. Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
d. Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
Carl Jung proposed that the unconscious consists of two layers, the ______ and the ______.
personal unconscious; collective unconscious
One idea from Jung's personality theory that has been incorporated into mainstream modern psychology is the notion of
introversion/extraversion.
According to Adler, ______ involves efforts to overcome imagined or real inferiorities by developing one's abilities.
compensation
John is always putting himself down and expressing doubts in his own abilities. According to Adler, John may have a(n)
inferiority complex.
Alfred Adler emphasized the ______ context of personality development.
social
Adler's theory stimulated hundreds of studies on the effect of ________. Although these studies generally failed to find support for their hypotheses, more recent family environment studies focusing on the Big Five traits have found some support.
birth order
Which of the following notions is NOT considered one of the major contributions of psychoanalytic theory?
a. Role of childhood experiences in influencing adult personality
b. Role of internal conflict in generating psychological distress
c. Influence of reinforcement in maintaining specific behaviors
d. Importance of unconscious motivation in influencing behavior
Influence of reinforcement in maintaining specific behaviors
Critics have described the psychodynamic perspective as
biased against females and empirically untestable.
Which of the following individuals is generally recognized for initiating the development of behaviorism?
a. John B. Watson
b. Alfred Adler
c. Albert Bandura
d. Hans Eysenck
John B. Watson
Which of the following is a behaviorist definition of personality?
A collection of response tendencies that arise in various stimulus situations
Which of the following individuals is credited with discovering classical conditioning?
Ivan Pavlov
An originally neutral stimulus that acquires the capacity to elicit a conditioned response is called a(n)
conditioned stimulus.
According to the principles of classical conditioning, the consistent presentation of the CS alone, without the UCS, is likely to lead to which of the following?
Extinction
____________ refers to the process of learning as one experiences the consequences of voluntary actions.
Operant conditioning
Attempting to weaken a response by presenting a noxious or aversive stimulus after that response is called
punishment.
Albert Bandura differed from other behaviorists in that he gave an important role to _________ in influencing human behavior.
cognition
The idea that people are active participants in their learning is the core of
social cognitive theory.
belief about one's ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes is called
self-efficacy.
Behaviorists have provided the most thorough account of why people
are only moderately consistent in their behavior.
One criticism of the behavioral approach in the past is that
cognition is not directly observable behavior.
Humanistic theory emerged in the 1950s as a(n) ______ behavioral and psychodynamic theories.
backlash against
Which of the following individuals based his theory on the importance of the self-concept?
a. Abraham Maslow
b. Carl Rogers
c. Sigmund Freud
d. Hans Eysenck
Carl Rogers
According to Rogers, one's self-concept
may be inaccurate
Daniel feels that he is not living up to his own best image of the person he would like to be. He experiences upset due to a sense of
incongruence.
Rogers emphasized a person's subjective point of view he called
person-centered.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is based on the idea that
some needs are more basic than others.
Which of the following was NOT described by Maslow as one of the characteristics of a self-actualizing person?
a. Autonomous
b. Problem-centering
c. Self-centered
d. Spontaneous
c. Self-centered
According to Maslow, the self-actualizing person is characterized by
a. spontaneity.
b. freshness of appreciation.
c. peak experiences.
d. all of these.
d. all of these.
Which of the following is one of the significant contributions of humanistic theory?
a. Importance of one's subjective views
b. More attention to psychological health
c. More attention to self-concept
d. All of these are important contributions.
d. All of these are important contributions.
Humanistic theory has been criticized for
a. poor testability of hypotheses.
b. inadequate evidence.
c. an unrealistic view of human nature.
d. all of these.
d. all of these.
Which of the following psychologists said "personality is determined to a large extent by a person's genes"?
a. Hans Eysenck
b. Raymond Cattell
c. Abraham Maslow
d. Albert Bandura
a. Hans Eysenck
Which of the following traits has been of particular interest to Eysenck?
Extraversion-introversion
_____________ is an estimate of the proportion of trait variability within a population that is determined by differences in genetic inheritance.
The heritability ratio
Twin studies discussed in your text suggest that genes account for about ______ of peoples' variation in personality.
50%
Evolutionary psychologists like David Buss have argued that the "Big Five" personality traits exist across a variety of cultures because these traits
have had significant adaptive implications.
Which of the following does the textbook cite as a weakness of biological approaches to personality?
Lack of adequate theory
John molds his interpretation of his past dating to fit how the relationship turned out. This is a common tendency called
hereditary influence.
Brianne likes to explore new experiences and has recently taken up mountain climbing. She is likely to have a high score on Zuckerman's scale to measure
sensation-seeking.
High sensation-seeking is probably a(n) ______ behavior.
maladaptive
One of the chief goals of terror management theory is to explain why people need
self-esteem.
According to terror management theory, cultural worldviews diminish anxiety by
providing answers to universal, existential questions.
According to terror management theory, the increase in patriotism following the terrorist attack in New York on September 11 might be associated with
increasing mortality salience.
It has been theorized that increased awareness of death, called mortality salience, leads people to
a. give larger rewards to people who uphold cultural standards.
b. show respect for cultural icons, such as flags.
c. have harsher penalties to those who break moral cultural traditions.
d. all of these.
d. all of these.
The five-factor model _______________ in non-Western cultures.
applies with some differences
While no single, dominant personality profile has been found in each culture, cross-cultural comparisons have shown
continuity of trait structure.
Cross-cultural research into national character using the five-factor model indicates that
people's beliefs about national character are usually inaccurate stereotypes.
When English language personality scales are translated and administered in other cultures, the Big Five personality traits
usually emerge
______________ test requires people to respond to ambiguous stimuli. Inferences about needs, emotions, and personality traits are drawn from the responses.
A projective
Which of the following is NOT a projective test?
a. Rorschach test
b. Thematic Apperception Test
c. NEO Personality Inventory
d. All of these are projective tests.
c. NEO Personality Inventory
Personality testing conducted on the Internet
a. allows the collection of additional data compared to paper-and-pencil testing.
b. helps reach more isolated clients.
c. costs less than paper-and-pencil testing.
d. all of these.
d. all of these.
Online personality assessments
require special precautions regarding the identity of the respondent.
Whether or not an event is stressful is most likely to depend on
how one appraises and adapts to the event.
Primary appraisal is an initial evaluation of whether an event is
relevant and stressful.
Secondary appraisal involves
evaluating your coping resources and options
_______________ has been a major source of stress in many societies around the world.
Cultural change
Which of the following may be a significant cause of stress for immigrants?
Acculturation
One challenge faced by members of ethnic minorities in dealing with everyday discrimination is that manifestations of such discrimination are often
ambiguous.
Which of the following is NOT a major source of stress described in your textbook?
a. Change
b. Internal conflict
c. Frustration
d. Socialization
d. Socialization
The four major types of stress described in your textbook are
frustration, internal conflict, pressure, and change
Which of the following is a common kind of frustration leading to stress?
Losses
_________ may be a common effect of environmental or ambient stress.
Frustration
Internal conflict occurs when
two incompatible behavioral impulses compete for expression.
Generally, which kind of conflict tends to be the least stressful?
Approach-approach
You want to ask someone for a date, but you are afraid of being rejected. Which of the following types of conflict applies to your situation?
Approach-avoidance
You are a talented artist and good at mathematics. You enjoy both and don't know which to major in at college. Which of the following types of conflict applies to your situation?
Approach-approach
Approach-avoidance conflicts often produce
vacillation.
Research supports a previous theory that internal conflicts generate considerable psychological stress. The theorist who proposed this was
Freud.
Current research indicates that
a. positive change is typically more stressful than negative change.
b. only negative change is stressful.
c. we have little reason to believe that change is inevitably stressful.
d. all change is inevitably stressful.
c. we have little reason to believe that change is inevitably stressful.
Which of the following researchers designed a scale to measure pressure as a form of life stress?
a. Albert Bandura
b. Thomas Holmes
c. Neil Miller
d. Wayne Weiten
d. Wayne Weiten
Weiten's research on the stressful effects of pressure indicates that there is a strong relationship between pressure and
a variety of psychological problems.
Fredrickson et al. (2003) found that the frequency of pleasant emotions correlated __________ with resilience and the frequency of negative emotions correlated ___________ with resilience.
positively; negatively
Research suggests that positive emotional reactions to stress may have the adaptive quality of enhancing
social, intellectual, and physical resources.
Research following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States found that emotions of anger, sad, glad, hopeful, and content were statistically significant in relation to
resilience.
Sometimes, anxiety helps us by motivating us to study for a test, but if we become too anxious, we pass our optimal level of arousal and spend too much time worrying instead of studying. This type of correlation is described as
the inverted-U hypothesis.
Research on the inverted-U hypothesis is

a. in need of refinement.
b. inconsistent.
c. based on animal learning.
d. all of these.
d. all of these.
The "fight-or-flight" response was first described by
Walter Cannon.
The fight-or-flight response occurs in the
sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.
The sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system
mobilizes bodily resources for emergencies.
New research on gender and the fight-or-flight response indicates that
fighting and fleeing may be less adaptive for females because both responses may endanger offspring.
An alternative to the fight-or-flight response that may be present for females is the
tend-and-befriend response.
In humans, the fight-or-flight response is less adaptive than it was in ancestral humans because
most modern human stresses can't be managed with these strategies.
Hans Seyle's work was important because it showed
how prolonged physiological arousal that is meant to be adaptive could lead to diseases.
___________ is credited with formulating the theory of stress reactions called the general adaptation syndrome.
Hans Selye
Selye exposed lab animals to various stressors and found that
patterns of physiological arousal were similar, regardless of the type of stress.
The general adaptation syndrome is a
set of bodily responses to stress.
The correct order of stages in the general adaptation syndrome is
a. resistance, alarm, exhaustion.
b. alarm, exhaustion, resistance.
c. resistance, exhaustion, alarm.
d. alarm, resistance, exhaustion.
d. alarm, resistance, exhaustion.
In the __________ stage of the general adaptation syndrome, the body attempts to adapt to continued stress.
resistance
You hate mathematics and feel a knot forming in your stomach when you read in the college catalog that Calculus I is required for your chosen major. You are in the _____________ stage of the general adaptation syndrome.
alarm
You realize that no matter how much you hate mathematics, you will not be able to drop out of calculus class this semester if you want to go to the graduate school of your choice. You hunker down for a miserable semester of hard and studious labor. You are in the ____________ stage of the general adaptation syndrome.
resistance
After barely squeezing through Anatomy 101 with a passing grade, you sleep 16 hours a day for the first 10 days of summer break and refuse to see any of your friends. You are in the ____________ stage of the general adaptation syndrome.
exhaustion
Seyle's general adaptation model has been criticized because
it ignores individual differences in the appraisal of stress.
Which of the following is least likely to have a negative impact on the immune system?
a. Caring for an elderly parent
b. Receiving long-term disability following an automobile accident
c. Remaining in a hostile work environment while waiting for a better job opportunity to come along
d. Spending the weekend with hostile family members
d. Spending the weekend with hostile family members
______ are hormones that help mobilize the body for action.
Catecholamines
The "master gland" of the endocrine system is the
pituitary.
Mounting evidence from research indicates that stress may ______ the functioning of the immune system.
suppress
By definition, coping efforts are
not necessarily adaptive or maladaptive.
Psychosomatic disease ______ because of research on stress
has fallen into disuse
______ variables are factors that can soften the impact of stress on physical and mental health.
Moderator
A behavior pattern marked by commitment, challenge, and control that appears to be related to stress resistance is called
hardiness.
The Life Orientation Test (LOT) was designed to measure
optimism.
Unrealistic optimism
may lead to risky behaviors.
Bob is working on behavior self-modification because he would like to be less irritable at work. His attempts are ______ because he has focused on a personality trait.
unlikely to succeed
The best way to approach self-modification is to focus on _____ rather than _____.
specific behaviors; personality traits
To gather baseline data for self-modification, you should do all but which of the following?

a. Determine the initial response level
b. Monitor events immediately after the target response
c. Monitor typical consequences
d. You should do all of these
b. Monitor events immediately after the target response
Mary has noticed that when she watches an exciting basketball game, she eats more snack food. She has identified
an antecedent.
The best way to increase response strength in self-modification is through
a. positive reinforcement.
b. finding a reward effective for that person.
c. choosing a readily available reinforcer.
d. all of these.
d. all of these.
Robert has decided to reinforce his increased study time target by adding a star to a chart every time he studies one hour. He has decided that every 20 stars, he can do an activity with his friends for four hours. His idea is a form of
token economy.
To decrease a response, you may use
a. negative reinforcement.
b. control of antecedents.
c. punishment.
d. any of these
d. any of these.
Denise has decided to decrease her target behavior of unhealthy eating by avoiding the fast-food and cookie aisles of the grocery store. She is using the method of
control of antecedents.
Some behavior modification programs have common flaws. Rory found that she had too long of a delay between behavior and reinforcement. She should
fine-tune her program.
The best way to end a self-modification program is

a. let it fade away, but notice if old patterns return.
b. phase it out.
c. set an ending goal.
d. any of these.
d. any of these.
Learned helplessness results when humans are subjected to aversive events that
are unavoidable.
_____________ developed the learned helplessness model.
Martin Seligman
Whether someone develops learned helplessness under conditions of unavoidable aversive events most likely depends on
cognitive interpretation.
Withdrawal could be an adaptive response to stress under which of the following circumstances?
When one is not equipped to handle a situation
If you enter a 10K race without training adequately, _____________ might be the most adaptive coping strategy.
behavioral disengagement
Which of the following was NOT found in frustration-aggression research?
a. Frustration does not necessarily lead to aggression.
b. Many factors besides frustration affect the likelihood of aggression.
c. Aggression leads to frustration as often as frustration leads to aggression.
d. Frustration is more likely to produce aggression when alcohol is involved.
c. Aggression leads to frustration as often as frustration leads to aggression.
Diversion of anger toward a substitute target was noted by Sigmund Freud, who called it
displacement.
Freud coined the term __________ to refer to the release of emotional tension.
catharsis
Experimental research indicates that aggressive behavior
does not reliably lead to catharsis.
When things are going poorly in one area of life, one may compensate by pursuing substitute forms of satisfaction. This coping strategy is referred to as
developing alternative rewards.
Albert Ellis believes that problematic emotional reactions to stress are caused by
catastrophic thinking.
Who originally developed the concept of defense mechanisms?
Sigmund Freud
Defense mechanisms are unconscious reactions that protect a person from
unpleasant emotions.
Defense mechanisms are largely ______ and entirely ______.
unconscious; normal
According to Taylor and Brown, depressed subjects exhibit ______ favorable and ______ realistic self-concepts than do "normal" people.
less; more
Defense mechanisms are
probably not healthy to use, with a few exceptions.
When psychologists label a coping response as constructive or healthy, they are basing this on
value judgments.
Albert Ellis developed __________ therapy, a system of psychotherapy based on altering clients' appraisals of events in order to reduce maladaptive emotions and behaviors.
rational-emotive behavior
of the following is NOT one of the main components of Ellis's model of catastrophic thinking?
Unconditioned response
According to Ellis, catastrophic thinking has its roots in
an unreasonable premise.
According to Albert Ellis, the goal of therapy is to replace catastrophic thinking with more low-key, __________ analysis.
rational
Finding humor in the situation is considered a(n) ______-focused strategy of constructive coping.
appraisal
Which of the following has NOT been proposed as an explanation for how humor helps to reduce the effects of stress and promote wellness?
Humor facilitates the release of stress-relieving neurotransmitters.
Comparing your stressful situation favorably with someone else's exemplifies which of the following?
Positive reinterpretation
of the following statements about seeking help from others is NOT true?
a. Social support can help buffer the deleterious effects of stress.
b. Some people have more social support than others.
c. Social support is generally considered a stable, external resource.
d. Many people are reluctant to acknowledge their problems and seek help from others.
Social support is generally considered a stable, external resource.
Time management experts agree that the key to better time management is increased
effectiveness
The first step in clarifying your goals is to
identify your lifetime goals.
Research suggests that efforts to actively suppress emotions result in
increased autonomic arousal.
increased autonomic arousal.
hostility
According to Herbert Benson, the relaxation response is NOT aided by a(n)
active attitude.
The most common strategy in the U.S. for coping with death is
avoidance.
_____ is the painful loss of a loved one and _____ is a formal practice in response to a death
Bereavement; mourning
According to Bowlby, grief over someone's death is likely to include all of the following except
acceptance.
_____ occurs when individuals experience several deaths in close succession.
Bereavement overload