Holt Ancient Civilizations Chapter 6 Ancient China
Terms in this set (41)
"Yellow River-China's sorrow" that stretches nearly 3,000 miles across Northern China flowing west to east
Yangzi River that cuts through central China-longest river in Asia, flows from Tibet mountains to Pacific Ocean
2200BC, archaeologists have not found evidence if tales of the this dynasty is true
Yu the Great
Founder of the Xia Dynasty
(1500BC-1050BC) The first dynasty with clear evidence established in the Huang He Valley, northern China and developed China's first writing system.
A prediction. Shang writing has been found on cattle bones and turtle shells whose cracks when heated were "read" by priests to predict the future.
(1050BC-400BC) Longest dynasty in Chinese history. Established a new political order with king at the highest level, then lords and warriors and then peasants.
People of high rank
Farmers with small farms
(551BC-479BC) Most influential teacher in Chinese history who believed in the return to ethics to restore family order and social harmony.
The followers of Confucius compiled his sayings in this book.
Mandate of Heaven
Heaven gave power to the king, and no one ruled without heaven's permission. If a king was found to be bad, heaven would support another leader.
Philosophical and religious teachings of Confucius: people should be respectful/loyal to their family members, leaders should be kind and lead by example, learning is a never ending process, heaven expects people to behave well and act morally.
Stressed living in harmony with the Dao ("the way") the guiding force of all reality. They believed that people should be like water and simply let things flow in a natural way. Universe is a balance of opposites (female and male) and should be in harmony.
(500sBC or 400sBC) The most famous Daoist teacher that taught that people should not try to gain wealth or power.
The Way and Its Power
Laozi's basic text of Daoism.
(Political philosophy) The belief that people were bad by nature and needed to be controlled by strict laws and punishments. Unity and efficiency were important and the preparation of war to expand the empire.
(221BC-206BC) Dynasty that united the country under one government and a system of standardization.
In 221 BC, he unified China and followed Legalist political beliefs and standarized the laws, written language, money system, weights and measures. Achievements: Built network of roads and canals, irrigation systems to improve farming and the Great Wall across northern China.
Discovered in 1974 in Xian in the tomb of Shi Huangdi was 6000 life size clay soldiers that were guardians of his tomb in the afterlife.
The Great Wall
Barrier that linked earlier walls across China's northern frontier. First section had been built in the 600sBC, Shi Huangdi connecting earlier pieces to form a long, unbroken structure to stop invaders from the north.
(206BC-AD220) Dynasty government was based on the ideas of Confucius. The Dynasty began with Emperor Liu Bang. Family life was supported and strengthened and this Dynasty made many achievements in art, literature, and learning.
A peasant that led the army and because of the "mandate of heaven" became the first emperor of the Han Dynasty. He lowered taxes and relied on educated officials to help him rule.
140BC became Emperor of Han Dynasty and created a strong central government by taking land from the lords and raising taxes. Confuciansm became China's government philosophy.
Confucian System of Social Classes
Four social classes: Emperor and his court and scholars; peasants; artisans; merchants.
Han invention that uses the position of shadows cast by the sun to tell the time of day.
Han invention that is a device that measures the strength of an earthquake.
Han innovation that improved medicine and is the practice of inserting fine needles through the skin at specific points to cure disease or relieve pain.
A new idea, method or device
A history that describes more than two thousand years of Chinese culture written by Sima Qian, Grand Historian under the Han emperor Wudi that took 18 years to write.
A soft, light, highly valued fabric made from the cocoons of the "----worm". The technique was a well-kept secret and production increased in the Han Dynasty with use of foot-powered looms.
4,000 mile long network of routes that stretched westward from China across Asia's deserts and mountain ranges, through the Middle East until it reached the Mediterranean Sea. Named after the most famous item transported.
The spread of ideas from one culture to another.
Example: Buddhism spread from India to China along the Silk Road. It offered re-birth and relief from suffering.
Han Empire and Roman Empire
The two empires that the Silk Road connected by AD100.
(481BC-221BC) Civil war period that occurred at the decline of Zhou period until Qin Dynasty Shi Huangdi unified China.
Han invention made by grinding plant fibers such as mulberry bark and hemp into a paste.
Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han
In order, the first 4 Chinese dynasties.
One of the physical barriers that separates China from its northern neighbors.
Small, cute mammal with long ears!