Science Terms Ch. 6
Terms in this set (70)
A measure of the average kinetic energy of motion of the particles of a substance
The temperature scale on which 32 and 212 are the temperatures at which water freezes and boils.
temperature scale in which the freezing point of water is 0 c and boiling point is 100 c
the temperature scale on which zero is the temperature at which no more energy can be removed from matter
the temperature at which no more energy can be removed from matter
thermal energy that is transfferes from 1 substance to another
the transfer of heat between particals within a substance
the transfer of heat between particals within a substance
A current caused by the rising of heated fluid and sinking of cooled fluid
The transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves
a material that easily transfeers heat between particals
a material that does not easily transfer heat between its particles
the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of a substance 1 degree Celsius
the three forms (solid, liquid, and gas) in which matter exists
change of state
the physical change of matter from one state to anouther
the change from the solid to the liquid form of matter
the temperature at which a substance melts
the change from the liquid to the solid form of matter
the temperature at which a substance freezes
the change from the liquid to the gaseous form of matter
vaporizatation that occurs as an object moves through a fluid
vaporization that occurs on and below the surface of a liquid
the temperature at which a liquid substance boils
the change from the gaseous to the liquid form of matter
the total energy of the particales in an object
a device that regulates temperature
a strip made of two different metals that expand at diffferent rates
a device that converts thermal energy into mechanical energy
the process of burning a fuel to produce thermal energy
external combustion engine
an engine powered by fuel burned outside of the engine
internal combustion engine
an engine that burns fuel inside cylinders within the engine
ph170#1. Name the 3 common temeperature scale. Give the freezing point and the boiling point of water for each.
fahrenheit scale-32 freeze 212 boil
celsius scale-0 freeze 100 boil
kelvin scale-273 K freeze 373 boil
pg170#2. Are thermal energy and temperature the same? explain.
No. even if two samples of matter are at the same temperature, they do not nessesarily have the same total energy
pg170#3. How is the motion of the particles within a substance related to the thermal energy of the substance?
they are mostly always moving
pg170#4. Why are there no negatives temperatures on the Kelvin Scale?
Because there is no thermal energy below 0 Kelvin
pg170#5. Can a container of cold water have the same thermal energy as a container of hot water? explain.
no because the hot container of water particles would move faster because its hot. the cold containers particles move alot slower.
pg177#1. How does heat differ from thermal energy?
as heat is increased the thermal energy also increases
pg177#2.describe the three kinds of heat transfer.
conduction-the transfer of heat between particles within a substance
convection-the transfer of heat by the movements within a fluid
radiation-the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves
pg177#3. what is specific heat.
the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of a substance by one kelvin
pg177#4. How much thermal energy is gained by 10 kg of silver if it is heated 21 degrees to 35 degrees celsius.
massxspecific heatx change in temeperature
10kgs x 235 x 14= 32900 joules
pg177#5. Before homes were heated, people often placed hot water bottles in their beds at bed time. Why is water a good choice?
waters specific heat is 400010080 (Joule/(kilogram x k)) Material with high specific heat can absorb a great deal of thermal energy without a great change in temperature.
pg186#1. How does thermal energy produce a change from one state of matter to anouther?
Matter will change from one state to anouther if thermal energy is absorbed or released. As thermal energy increases a substances changes from a solid to a liquid and then into a gas. a substance changes from a gas to a liquid and then a solid as thermal energy is removed from it
pg186#2. What is thermal expansion?
the expanding of matter when it is heated is known as thermal expansion
pg186#3. What happens to the temperature of a substance during a change of state? What happens to thermal energy during a change of state?
pg186#4. How does a thermast make use of thermal expansion?
thermostats have bimetallic strips which are made up of two different metals these metals expand at different rates. When the bimetallic strips are heated, one side expands more than the other causing the strip to bend. When the movement of the strip is connected to a heater, the thermostat will turn it on and off as the temperature changes.
pg186#5. Why do cook books recommend to poke wholes in a patato before you bake it?
the holes in the patato keep it from exploding because the hotter it gets the expands it gets and the particales start to move faster.
pg190#1. What is a heat engine?
a device that converts mechanical energy to thermal energy. Heat engines usually make us of combustion. Combustion is the process of burning a fuel such as coal and gasoline.
pg190#2. Describe the process that occurs in a refrigerater.
a refrigerater uses an outside energy sourse to transfers thermal energy from the cold space inside to the warm room outside.
pg190#3. What are the parts of the 4 stroke cycle.
intake stroke-a mixture of fuel and air go into the a cylinder and the piston moves down
compresssion stroke- the mixture is compressed into a small space as the piston moves back up
ignition-when the piston is at the top of the cylinder a spark plug ignites the mixture. CHemical energy turns into thermal energy
power stroke-as heated gas expands,it pushes the piston down which turns the crank shaft thermal energy is converted to mechanincal energy
exhaust stroke-the piston moves back up pushing the heated gas out and the cycle is ready to restart
pg190#4. What are the 2 types of heat engines? How are they alike? How are they different?
external combustion engines-the fuel is burned outside the engine an example of this is the steam engine
internal combustion engines-the fuel is burned in cylinders inside the engine an example of this is deasel is a gasoline engine
Section Review Chapter 6
SR#1.The average Kinetic energy of the particles of an object is its ____
SR#2. The process by which heat moves from one end of a solid to the other is called ___
SR#3. If you want to know the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of two kg of steel by 10 degrees celsuis you need to know steels _____
D. specific heat
SR#4. The change of state that occurs when a gas becomes a liquid is called _____
SR#5. Heat engines convert thermal energy to ______
C Mechanical energy
SR#6. The temperature reading as 0 on the CELSIUS scale is equal to absolute 0. T OR F
False ()absolute 0 = 0 degree Kelvin
SR#7. Heat transfer by RADIATION can occur in a vacume T OR F
False (Heat transfer bt RADIATION can occur by heat lamp)
SR#8. In order to decrease the amount of thermal energy that moves from one place to anouther you would use a CONDUCTOR. T OR F
Flase ( a material that does not conduct heat well is called an insulator)
SR#9. When a substance melts the temperature of a substance INCREASES. T OR F
SR#10. In an EXTERNAL combustion engine the fuel is burned inside the cylinder. T OR F
False (the fuel is burned outside the cylinder/engine)
SR#11. What happens to the particles of a solid as the thermal energy of the solid increases.
As the thermal energy increases the particles increase in motion
SR#14. How can you add thermal energy to a substance without increaseing its temperature?
SR#15. When molthen steel becomes solid its energy absorbed or released by the steel?
Liquid changes to solid is The loss or release of energy
SR#18. A mercury thermomiter contains 2 grams of mercury. IF the thermometers reading changes from 25 C to 40C how much heat was needed? The specific heat of mercury is 140j/(kg x K)
0.002X140JX15 degree C= 4.3 degree
SR#25. What is this massage mostly about?
C. How the ocena effect the costal climate
SR#26. Since the specific heat of water is higher than that of land.
B The temperture of water rises less then that of land given the same amount of energy
SR#27. Why is portland oregon cooler than Minneapolis Minnesota in the summer?
B. winds carry cool ait to Portland