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a phylum of 300,000+ species. It contains the angiospems (flowering plants)


1 of the 2 major groups of angioperms; Grass plants. Have one cotyledon (Ex: lillies, orchids, palms)


Refers to all angiosperms other than monocots; characterized by having two cotyledon (Ex: sunflowers, roses, oaks, mustards)


The part of the flower producing the pollen, composed usually of anther and filament; collectively the stamens make up the androecium


the pollen-bearing portion of the stamen (penis)


the stalk of a stamen


A term sometimes used to refer to an individual carpel or a group of fused carpels


the region of the carpel that serves as a receptive surface for pollen grains and on which they germinate


A slender column of tissue that arises from the top of the ovary and through which the pollen tube grows


the enlarged basal portion of carpel or of a gynoecium composed of fused carpels; a mature ovary, sometimes with other adherent parts is a fruit


A structure in seed plants containing the female gametophyte with egg cell, all being surrounded by the nucellus and one or two integuments; when mature, an ovule becomes a seed

Sepal petal

One of the outermost flower structures, a unit of the calyx; sepals usually enclose (protect) other flower parts in the bud


The part of the axis of a flower stalk that bears the floral organs


A cavity within a sporangium or a cavity of the ovary in which ovules occur

pollen sacs

A cavity in the anther that contains the pollen grains


The spore-producing, diploid (2n) phase in a life cycle characterized by alternation of generations


In plants that have alternation of generations, the haploid (n), gamete-producing generation, or phase.


(OR microspore mother cell) A cell in which meiosis will occur, resulting in four microspores; in seed plants, often called a pollen mother cell


In heterosporous plants, a spore that develops into a male gametophyte


(OR megaspore mother cell) A diploid cell in which meiosis will occur, resulting in the production of four megaspores


In heterosporous plant, a haploid (n) spore that develops into a female gametophyte; in most groups, megaspores are larger then microspores

megagametophyte (female gametophyte)

female gametophyte, located within the ovule of seed plants (7 cells - 8 nuclei)

microgametophyte (male gametophyte)

male gametophyte (MATURE: 2 sperm cells, 1 tube cell)


The outermost layer or layers of tissues enveloping the nucellus of an ovule; develops into the seed coat


In the ovules of seed plants, the opening in the integuments through which the pollen tube usually enters

egg cell

A nonmotile female gamete, usually larger than a male gamete of the same species

antipodal cells

three (sometimes more) cells of the mature embryo sac, located at the end opposite the micropyle


Two short lived cells lying close to the egg in the mature embryo sac of the ovule of flowering plants

polar nuclei

Two nuclei (usually); one derived from each end (pole) of the embryo sac, which becomes centrally located; they fuse with a male nucleus to form the primary (typically 3n) endosperm nucleus.

sperm cells

A mature male gamete, usually motile and smaller than the female gamete.

tube cell

In male gametophytes, or pollen grains, of seed plants, the cell the develops into the pollen tubes

double fertilization

The fusion of the egg and sperm (resulting in a 2n fertilized egg, the zygote) and the simultaneous fusion of the second male gamete with the polar nuclei (typically resulting in a 3n primary endosperm nucleus); a unique characteristic of all angiosperms


A tissue, containing stored food, that develops from the union of a male nucleus and the polar nuclei of the central cell; it is digested by the growing sporophyte either before or after maturation of the seed; found ONLY in angiosperms


A structure at the base of the embryo in many vascular plants. In some plants, it pushes the embryo into nutrient rich tissue of the female gametophyte.


A proteinaceous material, usually in the form of small granules, occurring n the outermost cell layer of the endosperm of wheat and other grains


Type of seed germination in which the cotyledons are carried above ground level


Type of seed germination in which the cotyledons remain underground


Embryonic tissue regions, primarily concerned with formation of new cells

Primary Tissues

Cells derived from the apical meristems and primary meristematic tissues of root and shoot; as apposed to secondary tissues derived from cambium; primary growth results in an increase in length.


The outermost layer of cells of the leaf and of young stems and roots; primary in orgin

Ground tissue

Tissues other than the vascular tissues, the epidermis, and the periderm; also called fundemental tissue;

Vascular Tissue

Pertains to any plant tissue that consists of giving rise to conducting tissue; xylem, phloem, vascular cambium

Leaf primordial

A lateral outgrowth from the apical meristem that will eventually become a leaf

Lateral meristem

Meristems that give rise to secondary tissues; the vascular cambium and cork cambium

Root cap

A thimblelike mass of cells that covers and protects the growing tip of a root

Parenchyma Cells

ground tissue; living, generally thin-walled cells of variable size and forum; the most abundant kind of cells in plants

Collenchyma Cells

ground tissue, supporting tissue, elongated living cell with unevenly thickened, nonlignified primary cell wall


Ground tissue; thick, lignified secondary wall having many pits. Are variable in form but typically are not very long; they may or may not be living at maturity.


Vascular tissue: most of the water and minerals are conducted through it; characterized by presence of tracheary elements


Vascular tissue; an elongated, thick-walled conducting and supporting cell of xylem. it has tapering ends and pitted walls without perforations, as contrasted with a vessel element. Found in nearly all vascular plants.

Vessel Elements

Vascular tissue; one of the cells composing of a vessel; also called a vessel member


A tubelike structure of the xylem composed of elongate cells (vessel elements) placed end to end and connected by perforations. It's function is to conduct water and minerals through the plant body. Found in nearly all angiosperms and a few other vascular plants.


vascular tissue; the food conducting tissue of vasular plants, which is composed of sieve elements, various kinds of parenchyma cells, fibers, and sclereids.

Sieve Tube Elements

One of the component cells of a sieve tube; found primarily in flowering plants and typically associated with a companion cell; also called Sieve tube member

Companion Cells

A specialized parenchyma cell associated with sieve tube element in angiosperm phloem and arising from the same mother cell as the sieve-tube element

Sieve Tubes

A series of sieve tube elements arranged end to end and interconnected by sieve plates

Quiescent Center

The relatively inactive initial region in the apical meristem of a root


A single layer of cells forming a sheath around the vascular region in roots and some stems; the endodermal cells are characterized by a Casparian strip within radial and transverse walls. In roots and stems of seed plants, the endodermis is innermost layer of the cortex


A tissue characteristic of roots that is bound externally by the endodermis and internally by the phloem

Lateral Roots

A root that arises from another, older root; also called a branch root, or secondary root, if the older root is the primary root


THe part of a stem where one or more leaves are attached


The region of a stem between two sucessive nodes

Lateral Bud


Leaf Primoridum

A lateral outgrowth from the apical meristem that will eventually become a leaf *Formed when the plane of cell division in the inner tunica layer shifts from anticlinal to periclinal


Leaf, node, internode, and axillary bude


Perpendicular to the surace


Parallel to the surface


The stalk of a leaf


The broad expanded part of the leaf, the lamina


Cuts through the center of the leaf (backbone)

Lateral veins

Veins in the blade

Simple Leaves

An undivided leaf; as opposed to a compound leaf

Compound Leaves

A leaf whose blade is divided into several distinct leaves


The ground tissues (parenchyma) of a leaf, located between the layers of the epidermis; mesophyll cells generally contain chloroplasts

Palisade Parenchyma

A leaf tissue composed of columnar chloroplast bearing parenchyma cells with their long axes and right angles to the leaf of the surface

Spongy Parenchyma

A leaf tissue composed of loosely arranged, chloroplast-bearing cells

Guard Cells


Stomates (Stomata)

A minute opening, bordered by guard cells, in the epidermis of leaves and stems through which gases pass; also used to refer to the entire stomatal apparatus - the guard cells plus their included pore. Lower epidermis, CO2 uptake and water release.

Secondary Growth

In plants, growth derived from secondary or lateral meristems, the vascular cambium and cork cambium; secondary growth results in an increase in girth, and is contrasted with primary growth, which results in an increase in length

Primary Growth

growth originating in the apical meristems of shoots and roots, as contrasted with secondary growth

Annual Plants

A plant whose life cyle is completed in a single growing season

Biennial Plant

A plant that normally reqauires two growing seasons to complete its life cycle; flowering and fruiting in its second year

Perennial Plants

A plant in which the vegetative structures live year after year

Vascular cambium

A cylindrical sheath of meristematic cells, the division of which produces secondary phloem and secondary xylem.


Outer protective tissue that replaces epidermis which it is destroyed during secondary growth, includes cork, cork cambium, and phelloderm

Cork Cambium

The lateral meristem that forms the periderm, producing cork (phellem) toward the surface (outside) of the plant and phelloderm toward the inside; common in stems and roots of gymnosperms and woody angiosperms.


A secondary tissue produced by a cork cambium; made up of polygonal cells, non living at maturity; with suberized cell walls, which are resistant to the passage of gases and water vapor; the outer part of the periderm


Secondary Xylem


A nontechnical term applied to all the tissues outside the vascular cambium in a woody stem

Rays: Initial

An initial in the vascular cambium that gives rise to the ray cells of the secondary xylem and phloem

Secondary xylem

Produced by the vascular cambium and cork cambium

Secondary Phloem

Produced by vascular and cork cambiums

Early Wood

The first formed wood of a growth increment; it contains larger cells and is less dense than the subsequently formed late wood. Replaces "spring wood"

Late Wood

The last part of the growth increment formed in the growing season, it contains smaller cells and is denser than the early wood; replaces "summer wood"

Annual Rings

In wood, the growth layer formed during a single year


A flower cluster with a definite arrangement of flowers

Perfect Flowers

A flower having both stamens and carpels; hermaphroditic

Imperfect Flowers

A flower lacking either stamen or carpels


Having the anthers and carpels produced in separate flowers in the same individuals


Unisexual; having the male and female (staminate and ovulate) elements on different individuals of the same species

Inferior Ovary (inferior flower)

An ovary that is completely or partially attached to the calx; the other floral whorls appear to arise from the ovary's top

Superior Ovary (superior flower)

An ovary that is free and separate from the calyx

Radial Symmetry

Can be divided into two equal halves in more than one longitudinal direction, also called regular

Bilateral Symmetry

Capable of being divided into two symmetrical halves only by a single longitudinal plane passing through the axis

Simple Fruit

A fruit derived from one carpel or several united carpels, (ex. apple)

Multiple Fruits

A cluster of mature ovaries produced by a cluster of flowers (ex. pineapple)

Aggregate Fruits

A fruit developing from the several separate carpels of a single flower


A horizontal stem (may be above or below ground) that terminates in a bud, for vegetative production


Plants with fleshly leaves or stems that are modified for water storage

Insectivorous Plants

Trap insects for Nitrogen, the traps are modified leaves

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