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55 terms

Memory & Cognition

Levels of Processing Theory
1. shallow processing (structural encoding)
2. intermediate processing (phonetic encoding)
3. deep processing (semantic encoding - meaning)
self-referent encoding
deciding how or whether information is personally relevant
organizing items into familiar, manageable units
the conscious repetition of information
spacing effect
evenly spaced study yields better long-term retention than last-minute studying
memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organization devices
serial effects
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
primacy effect
long-term memory; involved in serial-position effect
recency effect
short-term memory; involved in serial-position effect
sensory memory
the preservation of memory in its original sensory form for a fraction of a second
iconic memory
visual memory (sensory)
echoic memory
auditory memory (sensory)
short-term memory
the 20-second storage center through which a memory passes to reach the LTM. goes from this stage to LTM through rehearsal
long-term memory
unlimited capacity storage that can hold information over lengthy periods of time. there is a substantial amount of evidence demonstrating LTM permanence: recall vs. recognition, flashbulb memories
memory trace
physical basis of memory
long-term potentiation (LTP)
activating a neural connection increases synaptic efficiency (neural basis for learning)
Eric Kandel's sea slug study
parallel distributed processing theory
specific memories correspond to particular pattern of activation in a network of nodes. there are categories that have connections
tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
temporary inability to remember something that you know, with a feeling that it is just out of reach
context dependency
memory is good when learn and recall setting are the same
mood dependency
memory is good when the mood during learn and recall are the same
recall v. recognition
fill in the blank v. multiple choice
explicit (declarative) memory
without conscious recall (cerebellum), skills (motor and cognition) classical conditioning, retention
-episodic (things that happen)
-semantic (facts)
implicit (non-declarative) memory
procedural memory "how to's"
an organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous experience
emotion and memory
memory of a violent event is stronger than would be for a neutral event, although memory for associated detail is less
weapon focus
eyewitness memory for detail is worse when a weapon is present
leading questions
elizabeth loftus, "how fast were the cars going when they hit/smashed/collided/bumped?"
decay theory
memory is lost with the passage of time (forgetting curve)
retroactive interference
the old is forgotten, pushed out by new information
proactive interference
the new is forgotten, pushed out by old information
retrograde amnesia
losing memory from before the event
anterograde amnesia
even since the event, you have difficulty forming new memories
thinking about thinking (memory, logic, reasoning)
your mental image of what something is
organization of broad concepts into narrower subdivisions
broadest division of a concept (vehicles)
narrowest division of a concept (vans, sportscars)
interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemas (horse = big doggy)
adapting current schemas to incorporate new information
convergent thinking
taking logical steps to find a single solution (math problem)
divergent thinking
generating creative ideas by exploring multiple solutions
confirmation bias
people are more likely to remember things that are consistence with their schemas or expectations
inability to see a problem from a new perspective (mental set)
functional fixedness
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions
step-by-step procedure that leads to a solution
a sudden and often novel realization of a solution
availability heuristic
information more readily in our memory is more important that information that is not as easily accessible (we think planes are more dangerous than cars)
representativeness heuristc
a rule of thumb where similarity to a prototype or similar situation dictates a decision
the tendency to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs
the rules of grammar used in sentence structure
receptive language
ability to comprehend speech (4 months)
productive language
ability to produce words
stages of language
1. babbling stage (4 mo.)
2. one-word stage (10 mo.)
3. two-word stage (24 mo.)
4. telegraphic stage (24+ mo.)
linguistic determinism
Benjamin Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think