Reading cards for chapter 19. China, the Ottoman Empire, and Japan
In what ways did the Industrial Revolution shape the character of 19th century European imperialism?
The Industrial Revolution made over seas expansion and business more desire. This also provided new means for achieving these goals.
What contributed to changing European views of Asians and Africans in the 19th century?
It used to be that "they" were heathens and "we" were Christians. Some Europeans married the Chinese and adopted their ideas and techniques. After the Industrial Revolution, their opinion of many countries dropped a lot and held themselves higher even though they used many of the sciences of other countries. Many Europeans felt that it was their duty to civilize the "weak races".
What accounts for the massive peasant rebellions of 19th century China?
Having a huge population boom with agriculture unable to keep up. Also, unemployment, impoverishment, misery, and starvation. The bureaucracy did not grow to keep up with the population so it could not handle important problems effectively.
How did Western pressures stimulate change in China during the 19th century?
Opium was illegally imported and soon there were millions of addicts in China which led to it being banned, seized, and expelled from China. This made the British very mad and thus began the first Opium War.
What strategies did China adopt to confront its various problems? In what ways did these strategies reflect China's own history and culture as well as the new global order?
The Chinese tried to stimulate the traditional China while carefully borrowing from the West. They put more emphasis on education which was always extremely important to the Chinese.
What lay behind the decline of the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century?
The Ottoman Empire was no longer able to deal with the West and many feared that it would not be able to protect them from falling under Christian powers. Many invasions and attacks left the once strong Empire weaker and weaker. The empire also had a hard time keeping up with its population.
In what ways did the Ottoman state respond to its various problems?
"Defensive modernization"- more intensive and sustaining than China's strategy. The empire because very hostile and led to the Sultan being assassinated.
In what different ways did various groups define the Ottoman Empire during the 19th century?
There were some who supported the reforms and some who were loyal to the Ottoman Empire. This started many rebellions.
In what ways was Japan changing during the Tokugawa era?
Samurai disappeared. Economic growth, urban development, and commercialization. More rice than ever. Became the most urbanized country.
In what respects was Japan's 19th century transformation revolutionary?
These changes transformed Japan more radically than even the Ottoman efforts.
How did Japan's relationship to the larger world change during its modernization process?
The treaties between Japan and other countries became fair. Japan was now seen as an equal player in the world. Also started its own empire as it won wars. japan became a model for modern development.