short church ceremony, marked taking this step. Blessed by a priest and given a sword and a belt
home-based, family-owned and run, with the father making goods and family members helping in making and selling of goods
Made lords and vassals dependent on one another, because the lords needed soldiers, which the vassal provided, while vassals needed a means of a support
business associations that dominated medieval towns; they passed laws, levied taxes, built protective walls for the city, etc. Made rules that set quality and training standards
medieval poet and musician who sang or recited while accompanying himself on a stringed instrument
King John I
Was the King of England who was forced to sign the Magna Carta because of his cruel behavior and abuse of his absolute power.
the royal charter of political rights given to rebellious English barons by King John in 1215
A period of rebirth because it renewed interest in the achievements of ancient times and it made people feel more confident in their abilities and possibilities
Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center (1473-1543)
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
Clergyman in Geneva, Switzerland and preached and wrote about a severe form of Christianity. He drew up stern laws both for his followers and for city government.
Queen Elizabeth I
Queen of England from 1558 to 1603. English renaissance flourished during her reign.
the Spanish fleet that attempted to invade England, ending in disaster, due to the raging storm in the English Channel as well as the smaller and better English navy led by Francis Drake. This is viewed as the decline of Spains Golden Age, and the rise of England as a world naval power.