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water is reffered to this and it dissolves other things


while water doesn't dissolve everything, molecules (like sugar) that enter into suspension are

plasma membrane

cell are surrounded by this and among its myriad functions, serves as a selectively permeable membrane

selectively permeable membrane

it allows the passage of some materials and impedes the passages of others

concentration gradient

when there is a difference in molecule concentration between two adjacent areas


the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration


which water moves from an area of high to low concentration


humans can't utilize saltwater as a source of water since it is so high in solutes, this is called


we are this, (lower solute concentration), with respect to saltwater


if we drink something with the exact same amount of solute as us

passive transport

all life is subject to the tenents of selection, thus seeks to maximize energy efficiency and decrease energy expenditures, some types of transportation cost nothing for the cell

the more energy you have for other endeavors

the more passive transport you engage in,

facilitated diffusion

these proteins act as channels through which molecules that are too large or charged move, all without the expenditure of precious energy


there are some molecules that you really want in your cells, but must move __ a concentration gradient

active transport

for these molecules, you have to spend energy (in the form of ATP), takes precious energy away is called


water exiting the plant cell, the result is a wilted, droopy, vegetative appendage


a red blood cell lacking the cell wall of a plant, has only a thin membrane preventing it from swelling to epic proportions before lysing as water enters the cell

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