Personality Exam 3
Terms in this set (37)
Central Nervous System
The brain and the spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
The somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system
Somatic Nervous System
Part of the PNS; controls muscle movements
Autonomic Nervous System
Regulates smooth muscles including inner organs, cardiac muscle, and glands. Includes the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.
part of the ANS; mobilizes energy for fight or flight.
Part of the ANS; replenish's the body's energy stores through salivation, digestion, and other functions
Galvanic Skin Response (GSR)
A measure of arousal using sweat
A measure of muscle activity in the brain through electrodes placed on the scalp
Computerized Tomography (CT)
A high-resolution x-ray picture of thin slices of brain tissue, formally called a CAT scan
Computer Axial Tomography (CAT)
Is now called a CT scan
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
A high-resolution 3D picture of the brain tissue obtained by the use of radio frequency waves
Identifies electrical activity during contraction and relaxation
Evoked Potential (EP)
Electrical activity in a specific brain cell in response to a stimulus
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
A picture of brain activity using a radioactive substance and a special scanner. Color enhancement is used to identify amounts of activity across many regions of the brain.
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
A high-resolution 3D picture of brain activity over time using blood-oxygen levels. Color enchancement is used to identify amount of activity across many regions of the brain.
A flaw in some fMRI studies that occurs when researchers unintentionally bias their results by not independently selecting which brain areas to correlate with personality characteristics or other variables.
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)
Using an electrical current to disrupt or enhance neuron functioning to pinpoint with greater accuracy than other techniques an exact area of brain function
Chemicals released by neurons to inhibit or excite the next neuron into action to help transmit signals though the nervous system
A technique to identify neurotransmitter function in which researchers administer a drug with a known effect on a specific neurotransmitter and monitor the impact of the drug on reactions that are thought to be related to the neurotransmitter
A 2D graph that shows the relationship between two variables
A set of personality characteristics that are relatively stable across the life span, present from birth, determined by genetic factors, and develop with maturation and experience
A personality trait that describes how much people energetically seek out interactions with others and experiences positive emotions. People who are low in Extraversion are described as introverted and tend to be reserved, quiet, and shy.
A personality trait that describes how tough-minded, selfish, and antisocial a person is. People who are low in this are high in Agreeableness and Conscientiousness
Ascending Reticular Activating System (ARAS)
A pathway transmitting signals form the limbic system and hypothalamus to the cortex. Activation here can make a person alert and mentally sharp
In physiology, how reactive people are to stimulation. an important difference between extraverts and introverts. In sexuality, the capacity to become aroused to sexual stimuli
Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST)
The theory that the way people's brain and nervous systems respond to stimuli determines personality. The three hypothetical brain systems thought to be related to personality difference are the FFFS, BIS, and BAS
Fight-Flight-Freeze System (FFFS)
The brain system associated with fear and reactions to aversive stimuli (ex. fight or flight) and the personality characteristics of fearfulness, avoidance, phobias, and panic disorders
Behavioral Approach System (BAS)
The brain system associated with stimuli that are enticing, pleasurable, and rewarding and the personality characteristics of optimism, implusiveness, addictive behaviors, high-risk impulsive behaviors, and mania. Makes a person more sensitive to rewards
Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS)
The brain system associated with conflicts that may cause feelings of anxiety, worry, rumination, risk assessment, vigilance, a sense of possible danger, and a sense of loss. When activated, people become more sensitive to punishment
The discredited theory of Joseph Gall from the 1790s that the size, shape, and location of bumps on the scalp was related to particlar mental or personality characteristics
The lack of positive emotion; a loss or inability to experience pleasure that may or may not be accompanied by the presence of negative emotions
Individual differences in how strongly the left side of the cortex responds to negative emotion compared to how strongly the right side responds to positive emotions
The pursuit of varied, novel, complex, or intense experiences and the willingness to take risks to have such experiences
The desire for moderate arousal through different kinds of experiences involving both the mind and the senses, perhaps through music, travel, or an unconventional lifestyle. One of the 4 subscales of the Sensation Seeking Scale.
The need for change and variety and an aversion to routine and sameness. One of the 4 subscales of the Sensation Seeking Scale.
Thrill and adventure seeking
Arousal seeking through physical sensations produced by speed, height, falling, danger, like through extreme sports. One of the four subscales of the Sensation Seeking Scale
The extent to which people have lowered social inhibitions and enjoy letting loose in the company of others without a thought about decorum, proper behavior, or social norms. It often takes the form of alcohol use, partying, and sex. One of the 4 subscales of the Sensation Seeking Scale.