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Using the same words frequently to reinforce concepts and unify speech.


Repeating a grammatical structure or an arrangement of words to create rhythm and momentum.


A comparison of two unlike things. It's a simile or metaphor that you may or may not elaborate on.


Expressing the same idea in different words to clarify and stress key points.


The regularly repeated line or group of lines in a poem or song. Referring to such evocative pros can help associate an argument with the feelings we already for these poems and songs.

Rhetorical Questions

Questions that do not require an answer.

Anticipating of Counter-Arguments

Can prevent opposing ideas from gaining traction with one's audience.

Peer Pressure

Can be used to convince us hat if everyone else is thinking a certain way, we should think that way too.


It can be used to "win you over," to make you like the writer or speaker and, therefore, his or her ideas.

Emotional Words

Powerful adjectives that lead people to recognize that ideas expressed are important to the writer.

Formal Words

Lead audience to believe something is ethnically or legally important.


The art or study of effective language.

Effective Language

Language doing something, having some effect, having impact.

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