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64 terms

Ch.12 BLOOD (terms)

Book: The human body in health and disease
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plasma
liquid portion of the blood
formed element
cellular fraction of blood
acidosis
condition in which there is an excessive proportion of acid in the blood and thus an abnormally low blood pH
alkalosis
condition in which there is an excessive proportion of alkali(Base) in the blood
antigen
substance that stimulates the production of an antibody
antibody
a substance produced by the body that destroys or inactivates an antigen that has entered the body
agglutinate
antibodies causing antigens to clump or stick together
universal donor blood
Blood type O
universal recipient blood
blood type AB
erythroblastosis fetalis
hemolytic disease in the newborn caused by a blood groop (Rh factor) incompatibility between the mother and the fetus
RhoGAM
is a drug used for mothers who have Rh- blood to keep them from producing antibodies that could harm their future babies
plasma proteins
ex :albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen
albumins
help retain water in the blood
globulins
include antibodies that help protect us from infections
myeloid tissue
Red Bone Marrow
lymphatic tissue
produces lymp and lymphocytes (white blood cells)
hematopoiesis
formation of new blood cells
bone marrow transplant
infusion of normal bone marrow cells from a donor with matching cells and tissue to a recipient with a certain type of leukemia or anemia
oxyhemoglobin
when oxygen unites with hemoglobin to form an oxygen-hemoglobin compex
carbaminohemoglobin
when hemoglobin combines with carbon dioxide
CBC(complete blood cell count)
battery of tests used to mesaure the amounts or levels of many blood constitutes and is often ordered as a routine part of a physical examination
hematocrit
component of the CBC that provides information about the volume of RBC's in a blood sample
buffy coat
a thin light colored layer of white blood cells and platelets than lie between a top layer of plasma and red blood cells
polycythemia
serious blood disorder characterized by dramatic increases in RBC numbers
anemia
An inadequate number of RBC's, a deficiency in the production of normal hemoglobin, or production of hemoglobin that is in some way defective
hemorrhagic anemia
caused by an actual decrease in the number of circulating RBC's lost because of hemorrhage or bleeding
acute blood-loss anemia
can result from extensive surgery or sudden trauma
chronic blood-loss anemia
caused by slow but continuous blood loss over time from diseases such as cancer or ulcers
aplastic anemia
characterized by abnormally low RBC counts and destruction of bone marrow
pernicious anemia
results from a dietary deficiency of vitamin B12 or from the failure of the stomach ling to produce "intrinsic factor" the substance that allows vitamin B12 to be absorbed
folate deficiency anemia
results from vitamin B9 deficiency
iron deficiency anemia
caused by the deficiency of iron
hemolytic anemias
group that are all associated with a decreased life span caused by an increased rate of destruction
sickle cell anemia
genetic disease that results in the formation of limited amounts of an abnormal type of hemoglobin called hemoglobin S(HbS)
Thalassemia
a group of inherited hemolytic anemias
leukocytes
white blood cells
leukopenia
used to describe an abnormally low WBC count
leukocytosis
refers to an abnormally high WBC count
differential WBC count
reveals more information than simply counting the total number of all of the different types of WBC's in a blood sample
neutrophils
The most abundant type of white blood cell. Neutrophils are phagocytic and tend to self-destruct as they destroy foreign invaders, limiting their life span to a few days.
phagocytes
white blood cells that digest & destroy microorgasims and other unwanted substances
eosinophils
white blood cell that are responsible for combating infection by parasites
basophils
a type of WBC that promotes inflammation and participates in allergic responses.
monocytes
largest leukocytes; aggressive phagocytes; capable of engulfing larger bacterial organisms and cancerous cells
macrophages
"large eater" monocytes that have grown to several times their original size after migrating out of the bloodstream
lymphocytes
help protect us against infection
plasma cells
cells that develop from B cells and produce antibodies.
lymphoid neoplasms
malignant transformations of B cells, T cells, and NK cells. When present in blood and bone marrow, lymphoid neoplasms are called leukemias, and when they are localized in lymphoid tissues they are called lymphomas.
myeloid neoplasms
abnormal proliferation of myeloid tissue or myeloid precursor cell often associated w/ cancerous transformation
multiple myeloma
cancer of mature, antibody secreting B lymphocytes called plasma cells
Infectious mononucleosis
"the kissing disease"; common non-cancerous WBC disorder appearing most often in adolescents and young adults, An infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) that is characterized by fever, a sore throat, and enlarged lymph nodes
prothrombin activator
a protein formed by clotting factors from damaged tissue cells and platelets; it converts prothrombin into thrombin, a step essential to forming a blood clot
prothrombin
plasma protein; converted to thrombin in the clotting process
thrombin
an enzyme that acts on fibrinogen in blood causing it to clot
fibrinogen
a protein present in blood plasma, constituent of blood that aids in coagulation
fibrin
Protein threads that form the basis of a blood clot, The activated form of the blood-clotting protein fibrinogen, which aggregates into threads that form the fabric of the clot.
thrombus
a clot that stays in the same place it was formed
thrombosis
the formation or presence of a thrombus (a clot of coagulated blood attached at the site of its formation) in a blood vessel
embolus
A clot that breaks lose and travels through the bloodstream.
embolism
sudden blockage of a blood vessel by an embolus
hemophilia
a hereditary disease where blood does not coagulate to stop bleeding
factor VIII
a coagulation factor (trade name Hemofil) whose absence is associated with hemophilia A
thrombocytopenia
disorder that results from a decrease in the platelet count
Normal volumes of blood
plasma 2.6L, formed elements 2.4L, whole blood- 4 to 6L average or 7% to 9% of total body weight