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Terms in this set (34)
elements of a high risk portrayal of violence in the media?
the following are all featured in the same scene.
Attractive perpetrator, violence that is justified and violence that goes unpunsished
Violence that shows no pain or harm but is realistic to its viewer
What types of television and movies have the most violent content?
Cartoon/children shows (50%) Looney Tunes
Conclusions about television film/violence?
-children are exposed to a lot of violence in the media
-violence directed at children poses risks
-average american child will 200,000 acts of violence and 16,000 murders before 18
-most violent acts go unpunished
-good guys beating up bad guys gives message that violence is normal
-many shows glamorize violence
What are the mechanisms through which video games influence aggression?
Identification with the aggressor
reinforcement for aggressive actions
What are the effects of playing violent video games?
-increase aggressive thoughts, angry and aggressive behavior and physiological arousal and decreases helpful behavior
What are the major effect of media violence exposure? explain desensitization
-Aggression and fear and desensitization which is diminished emotional responsiveness to a negative stimulus after repeated exposure to it (doctors with blood)
- Fear effect (viewers are more fearful of being victims)
-mean world syndrome
What are the short term effects of media violence?
What is Priming? Social Learning? Excitation transfer?
-Priming of aggressive scripts, cognitions or angry emotions, modeling imitation of what we see
-Priming (exposure to one stimulus influence the response to another stimulus)
-Social learning (kids learn how to behave by observing others)
-Excitation transfer (transfer around feelings from media to real life)
What are the long term effects of media violence?
Observational learning (behavioral scripts and normative beliefs become encoded in memory)
less negative affect when aggressing
What individual differences influence the media-violence/ aggression relationship?
-higher trait aggressiveness
-gender changing overtime
-more female models
-age inverse relation between viewers age and effect
-acceptable for females to behave aggressively
How does media violence affect children differently than adults?
-children enjoy viewing violence
-younger children interpret media messages differently by paying attention to perceptual features
-continued exposure to violence increases likelihood that children will be desensitized to real violence.
Why do people deny media violence effects?
-We think only of extreme behaviors, third person effect (media messages have greater effect on others than themselves)
-"My friend watches a lot and has killed no one"
-smoking and lung cancer
What are the 4 myths about media violence and aggression?
1. researchers see violent content in the media or video games as the direct cause of effects in viewers, risk factors
2. make believe violence, no studies linking violence to aggression
3. small fraction of individuals affects and effect size is small, meta analysis reveal that video game effect sizes are larger than effect of second hand smoking
4. those who find effects for media violence are biased
What percent of shows contain sexual content? Content about sexual risks?
-70% of all shows have content
-14% have content with sexual risks
How does viewing sexual content on television affect teens sexual behavior?
Teens rank the media as their top source of information on sexual matters
10 out of the 15 sources are media based that teens go to to get their questions answered
What are some of the prosocial aspects of sexual portrayals in the media?
-kaiser studies on the show ER
-awareness of the STD HPV
-Awareness of emergency contraception, they see it as a warning
-changing attitudes about sex and sexual identity
-reality TV seen as warning (16 and pregnant)
Erotica? Obscenity? Pornography? 3 criteria?
-Erotica=sexually explicit material
-Pornography=sexually explicit material involving displays of violence or dominance, males over females
-Obscenity= 1. material appeals to be prurient interest in sex. 2. material is patently offensive or beyond community standards. 3. not protected speech and no scientific value
What are the effects of violent pornography on arousal, attitudes, and aggression?
-Arousal= increased sexual arousal in presence of violence, proclivity to attempt rape
-Attitudes=less sensitivity toward rape, rape myth acceptance, predict reported likelihood to rape and use force
-Aggression= Related laboratory aggression against women, predicts self reported sexual aggression
What are the differences in media portrayals of violence and sexual violence against men and women?
percentage of males or females who are killed
TV: Male 94% Female 6%
R rated films: Male 79% Female 21%
Sex/violent films: Male 56% Female 44
What are the short and long term effects of exposure to media sexual violence?
-Long Term=Changes in mood, perceptions and attitudes and evaluations of real victims
-Short Term=Arousal changes and evaluations of violence
What are some conclusions that can be drawn about media sexual violence?
• Research indicated that exposure to depictions of violence against women juxtaposed with sexual content results in callousness toward female victims of violence
• Effect can occur without explicit sexual content
• Consenting sex, no matter how explicit, did not facilitate anti-social outcomes
• Effects in these studies are strongest for men who are already pre-disposed to sexual violence in some way
What are the components of emotion?
Physiological=increased heart rate, breathing
Cognitive=Think about our feelings and make attributions about them
Name and explain different types of frightening media?
-dangers and injuries
-distortions and natural forms
-fear shown by others
-similarity of the media depictions to real life
What are the reasons for differences in what they find scary?
-As children mature, they become more responsive to realistic dangers depicted in the media
-Law of apparent reality: the scarier content seems real, the more frightening it is
Identify which part of the brain media emotional content?
-direct stimulation of fear in center of brain
-fear is an emotional response related to avoidance or escape
-approach emotions (want to be active, anger)
-avoidance emotions (fear, sad so don't respond)
-stimulus generalization (stimuli that evoke fear reactions spread to other events)
stored in hippocampus, surface details, narrative
stored in amygdala, associated with strong emotions
what are coping strategies used to manage fear while viewing frightening content?
-Pre schoolers benefit from non cognitive strategies
-older from cognitive strategies
Differences between cognitive and non cognitive strategies?
-cognitive=children are told to remember that a program is not real, offer reassuring information about the minimal danger of any threats in the media
-non cognitive=visual desensitization, physical activity, holding something, proximity to others
How can emotional media content affect behavior?
-people who feel anger due to media consumption are more likely to be violent or aggressive
-people who feel happy due to media consumption are more likely to perform pro social behaviors
Mood Management theory?
the idea that people choose media to manage or control their moods
alternative to uses and gratifications theory
media selection will bring pleasure and avoid pain, maximize good feelings; when feeling sad watch comedy, when happy, watch comedy
how intense, exciting, stimulating, and arousing media selection is; don't want to be anxious for exam, put on good music, when bored, watch action movie
ability to involve the viewer, escapism, identification
good mood=low absorption
bad mood=high absorption
-how much it matches you, how much you like it
-matches your current mood
-good mood=high affinity
-bad mood=low affinity
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