67 terms

AP English Vocab 2015-2016

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Diction
A speaker's choice of words. Analysis of diction looks at those choices and what they add to the speaker's message.
Imagery
A description of how something looks, feels, tastes, smells, or sounds. Imagery may use literal or figurative language to appeal to the senses.
Tone
A writer or speaker's attitudes toward the subject conveyed to the stylistic and rhetorical choices.
Detail
Any small section of a larger unit; pay attention specifically to items an author chooses to include, as well as exclude.
Syntax
The arrangement of words into phrases, clauses, and sentences. This includes word order; the length and structure of sentences (simple, compound, complex, or compound-complex); and such schemes as parallelism, juxtaposition, antithesis, and antimetabole.
Connotation
Meanings or associations that readers have with a word beyond its dictionary definition. Connotations are often positive or negative, and they often greatly affect the author's tone.
Figurative Language
Nonliteral language, sometimes referred to as tropes or metaphorical language, often evoking strong imagery, figures of speech often compare one thing to another either explicitly (simile) or implicitly (metaphor). Other forms of figurative language include personification, paradox, hyperbole, understatement, metonymy, synecdoche, and irony.
Point of View
In fiction, the narrator's position in relation to the story being told; in non-fiction, it can be the angle at which we consider things.
Shift
A change in the speaker or writer's tone or style, often accompanied by a change in focus.
Pacing
The speed at which an author takes a reader through a narrative.
Ad Hominem
Latin for "to the man," this fallacy refers to the specific diversionary tactic of switching the argument from the issue at hand to the character of the other speaker.
Allegory
A figure of speech in which abstract ideas and principles are described through characters, figures, and events; allegories often have hidden or symbolic meaning.
Allusion
Brief reference to a person, event, or place (real or fictitious) or to a work of art.
Alliteration
Repetition of the same sound beginning several words or syllables in sequence.
Antanaclasis
Repetition of a word in two different sense.
Apostrophe
A figure of speech in poetry in which a poet addresses an absent person, idea, or thing.
Aphorism
A statement of truth or opinion expressed in a concise and witty manner.
Analogy
A comparison between two seemingly dissimilar things. Often, an analogy uses something simple or familiar to explain something unfamiliar or complex.
Anaphora
Repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses, or lines.
Anecdote
A brief story used to illustrate a point of claim.
Antimetabole
Repetition of words, in successive clauses, in reverse grammatical order.
Antithesis
Opposition, or contrast, of ideas or words in a parallel construction.
Asyndeton
Deliberate omission of conjunctions between coordinate phrases, clauses, or words.
Cacophony
Situation in which there is a mixture of harsh and inharmonious sounds; in literature, there are harsh, sharp, hissing, and unmelodious sounds to achieve a desired result.
Chiasmus
"the criss cross." Reversal of grammatical structure in successive phrases or clauses.
Colloquialism
The use of informal language or slang in writing.
Conceit
A figure of speech in which two vastly different objects are likened together; the comparison seems unlikely but offers and imaginative truth.
Cumulative Sentence
Sentence that completes the main idea at the beginning of the sentence and then builds and adds on.
Denotation
The literal or dictionary meaning of a word.
Didactic
Intended for teaching or instruction; tone can be pedantic or moralistic.
Ellipsis
Deliberate omission of a word or of words that are readily implied by the context.
Ephiphany
Moment in a story when character achieves a realization or clarity.
Ethos
Greek for "character." Speakers appeal to ethos to demonstrate that they are credible and trustworthy to speak on a given topic. Ethos is established by both who you are and what you say.
Euphemism
A polite or vague word or phrase used in place of a word or phrase which may be inappropriate, harsh, or offensive.
Genre
A category or art, music, or literature.
Homily
A sermon or speech delivered in order to bring about moral correction or spiritual edification.
Hyperbole
Deliberate exaggeration used for emphasis or to produce a comic or ironic effect; an overstatement to make a point.
Invective
Writing or speech which attacks, insults, or denounces a person, topic, or institution. Contains harsh and abusive language and is used to express emotions of the author.
Irony
A figure of speech that occurs when a speaker or character says one thing but means something else, or when what is said is opposite of what is expected, creating a noticeable incongruity.
Litotes
Deliberate use of understatement.
Logos
Greek for "embodied thought." Speakers appeal to logos, or reason, by offering clear, rational ideas and using specific details, examples, facts, statistics, or expert testimony to back them up.
Metaphor
Figure of speech that compares two things without using like or as.
Metonymy
Figure of speech in which something is represented by another thing that's related to it or emblematic of it.
Motif
An object or idea which repeats itself throughout a work.
Non Sequitur
A statement or conclusion that has nothing to do with the previous statement.
Onomatopoeia
Use of words whose sound echoes the sense.
Oxymoron
A paradox made up of two seemingly contradictory words.
Parallelism
Similarity of structure in a pair or series of related words, phrases, or clauses.
Parody
An imitation of something in a satirical or humorous way often meant to mock or ridicule.
Paradox
A statement or situation that is seemingly contradictory on the surface, but delivers an ironic truth.
Pathos
Greek for "suffering" or "experience." Speakers appeal to pathos to emotionally motivate their audience. More specific.
Pedantic
Characterized by attention to details in an ostentatious way; as a tone, desires to show off academic knowledge.
Periodic Sentence
Sentence whose main clause is withheld until the end.
Personification
Attribution of a lifelike quality to an inanimate object or an idea.
Polysyndeton
The deliberate use of multiple conjunctions between coordinate phrases, clauses, or words.
Repetition
A literary device that repeats the same words or phrases several times for emphasis or to make an idea more clear. There are many types of repetition, including anaphora.
Rhetorical Question
Asking a question, not for the purpose of eliciting an answer but for the purpose of asserting or denying something.
Sarcasm
Words in which what the speaker means is different from what he or she says. In the literary sense, it is a rhetorical device meant to mock in an ironic way with the purpose of humor or amusement.
Satire
The use of irony or sarcasm to critique society or an individual.
Simile
A figure of speech used to explain or clarify an idea by comparing it explicitly to something else, using the words like as, or as though.
Syllepsis
Use of a word understood differently in relation to two or more other words, which it modifies or governs.
Syllogism
A logical structure that uses the major premise and minor premise to reach a necessary conclusion.
Symbol
A literary device which contains several layers of meaning, often concealed at first sight, and is representative of several other aspects, traits, or concepts than those that are visible in a literal translation alone. It is use an object or action more than its literal meaning.
Synecdoche
Figure of speech that uses a part to represent the whole. It is a rhetorical device where the entire object is represented by a fraction of it.
Style
The way an author writes and the techniques an author uses in writing. It varies based on syntax, word choice, and tone.
Tautology
The repetitive use of phrases or words which have similar meanings. It often gives the impression that a writer is offering extra information about an idea.
Understatement
A figure of speech in which an author intentionally makes a situation seem less important than it is. It often has an ironical tone as it is less of a response than was expected.