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AP Human Geography Ethnicity: Terms from Rubenstein and others

sequent occupance

When successive societies leave a cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to cumulative cultural landscape. Shows how humans interact with their surroundings.


Genetic makeup, as distinguished from the physical appearance of an organism or a group of organisms


Observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism, as determined by genetic makeup and environmental influences.

triangular slave trade

Atlantic Slave Trads; an efficient triangular trading pattern

multi-ethnic state

State that contains more one ethnicity.

multinational state

State with two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self determination who agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities.


Small geographic area that can not be organized into one or more stable states because it was inhabited by many ethnicities with complex, long-standing antagonisms toward each other.


Process where real estate agents convinced white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that black families will soon move into the neighborhood.

ethnic islands

A small rural area settled by a single, distinctive ethnic group that placed its imprint on the landscape


Science of heredity, dealing with resemblances and differences of related organisms resulting from the interaction of their genes and the environment.


Deliberate and systematic extermination of a national, racial, political, or cultural group.

dowry deaths

Deaths of young women, murdered or driven to suicide by continuous harassment and torture by husband or in-laws.


Concept that ethnicities have right to govern themselves.


Works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops.

plural society

A society in which several ethnic groupings coexist, each living in communities or regions variously separate from the others.


A "dramatic" increase in Hispanic population in a given neighborhood


Belief or doctrine that inherent differences among the various human races determine cultural or individual achievement, often idea that one's own race is superior.


Person with a prejudiced belief that one race is superior to others.


People who are believed to belong to the same genetic stock.


Translated: separateness. Originally: rigid policy of segregation of population in South Africa along racial lines . Now: A system or practice that separates people according to race, caste, etc.


To divide (a country, territory, or other geographic area) into small, quarrelsome, and ineffectual states.


Loyalty and devotion to a nation, or nationality


Identity with a group of people who share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular country.

centrifugal force

Apparent force that seems to draw away from unity of a group. Centrifugal forces are those characteristics & issues that divide a people, or state.

ethnic cleansing

Systematic elimination of an ethnic group, or groups from a region or society through deportation, forced emigration, or genocide (mass murder).


Group identification based on shared ethnic traits, background, allegiance, or association

residential segregation

Segregation of where groups of people inside a specific community, area, or country live.


Social & cultural set of distinctions between masculine and feminine behaviors, promoted and expected by society

centripetal force

An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state.


Grading of neighborhoods based on residents' ethnicity; where African-Americans lived; were considered ineligible for FHA backed- loans (the FHA insured private mortgages) so were marked with red ink on maps.

white flight

Abandonment of cities by affluent/middle-class white residents; problematic in mid 20th C, resulted in less tax revenues in cities, thus inner-city decay. Some reversal in last 20 years with Urban Renewal.

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