236 terms


Alliance System
the treaties between countries across Europe based on tactical advantages as well as cultural similarities. These countries basically backed each other in the tense era of time and were originally created to maintain peace across Europe but ended up causing the wide scale factor of the war.
Triple Alliance
An alliance of European nations consisting of Germany, Austria Hungary, and Ottoman Empire who originally agreed to be peaceful based on common cultural similarities and tactical interests.
Triple Entente
the alliance among Great Britain, France and Russia after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente in 1907. The alliance of the three powers, supplemented by various agreements with Portugal, Japan, the United States, Brazil, Canada, and Spain, constituted a powerful counterweight to the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. (Italy had concluded an additional secret agreement with France, effectively nullifying their alliance with Germany.)
Balkan "Powder-Keg"
The spark of tensions in the area that Austria Hungary colonized in Serbia which Serbians believed belonged to them and when Austria Hungary took it, it caused tensions to spark in Serbia along with anti-Austria Hungary propaganda and led to the death of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
Archduke Franz-Ferdinand
The Leader of Austria Hungary at the time who was giving a speech when a Serbian assassin in the extreme nationalist group "the black hand" killed him. It was considered the match on the powder keg that led to the bloody beginning to the war.
"Blank Check"
The unconditional backing from Germany to Austria Hungary that allowed them to cash it for however much money they needed to attack Serbia.
Austro-Hungarian Ultimatum
The ultimatum from Austria Hungary demanding an end to anti Austria Hungary propaganda to end and also to fire all of the generals and people who were considered hostile to Austria Hungary. It was not a serious threat and Serbia did not comply.
Schlieffen Plan
Attack plan by Germans, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare. Attack France first, then Russia. Belgium is neutral-Britain upset-fall of the dominoes.
Central Powers
German Empire, the Austro Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Bulgaria. Fought against the allied powers and based off the triple axis in World War 1. The triple axis had Germany, Austria Hungary and Italy but Italy did not help the war because they believed it was a defensive group and Germany went on the offensive. Eventually Italy joined the Allied powers.
Allied Powers
Australia Belgium Canada France Greece India Italy Japan Montenegro Nepal New Zealand Portugal Romania Russia Serbia South Africa United Kingdom United States all made up the this, under the five great powers of UK, USA, Japan, Italy, and France. Although it was based on the triple entities of Russia, France, and Britain, Russia left the war early.
Twenty-One Demands
post WWI treaty made by Japan and sent to China bonding them as allies but also providing Japan with many benefits in the nation of China as their sphere of influence already occupied most of China.
War of Attrition
Massive death tolls in the war in which the main way to beat the enemy was last out the longest while your enemy dies out slowly. Both sides were starving in a stalemate as they hopelessly hoped for the other side to starve to death and allow them to progress
Trench warfare
Bloody warfare fought in trenches during World War 1 in which peopled died of diseases and being gunned down by machine guns and blown up by grenades and starvation.
Total War
The cost is not only millions of lives and billions of dollars but also we sacrifice progress. The world moves backwards as its inhabitants fight amongst themselves and millions of people's lives are sacrificed. People's sense of morality and codes of conduct are thrown out as animalistic belligerence takes over them as they bloodthirstily seek to kill each other. corrupts the mind through propaganda and the visuals that no man, whether German, British, Austrian, French, Japanese, or any other heritage should have to witness.
New Weapons During WWI
Bayonets Chiefly used as a psychological weapon Flamethrowers How 'sheets of flame' terrorized the British in 1915 Grenades Mills Bombs and Jam Pots: both forms of grenades Machine Guns How the German Army saw its potential before 1914 Pistols The officer's weapon Poison Gas First used by the French and popularized by the Germans Rifles Still the infantry's greatest asset, Tanks,The design and use of tanks during wartime. Trench Mortars, An ancient weapon given fresh life in the trenches. Bolt action rifles as well as magazine loaded rifles were developed and aircrafts were beginning to be made which led to anti aircrafts and eventually armored tanks to break the trenches. Though the planes and tanks were never fully developed.
"Home Front"
the civilian sector of a nation at war when its armed forces are in combat abroad. During world war 1, refers to life in Britain during the war itself. The Home Front saw a massive change in the role of women, rationing, the bombing of parts of Britain by the Germans (the first time civilians were targeted in war), the role of propaganda was profound and got ever civilian to get into the war by sending food to soldiers and rationing food and children and women getting in the work force to support the war.
introduced into Britain at the tail end of World War One in February 1918. used to ensure that food shortages never occurred. people settled down into a routine and food was not a problem until the end of 1916. Britain continued to import food during the war. The main exporters to Britain were America and Canada. This meant that merchant ships had to cross the Atlantic Ocean. Up to 1916, these merchant ships could travel in relative safety. However, in 1917, the Germans introduced unrestricted submarine warfare and merchant ships were sunk with great frequency. This had a drastic impact on Britain's food supply and with great losses in the Atlantic, food had to be rationed so that no one starved in Britain. In April 1916, Britain only had six weeks of wheat left and bread was a staple part of most diets
In World War One, the lengths to which governments would go to in an effort to blacken the enemy's name reached a new level. To ensure that everybody thought in the way the government wanted, all forms of information were controlled. Newspapers were expected to print what the government wanted the reader to read. In fact, though this would appear to be a form of censorship, the newspapers of Britain, effectively controlled by the media barons of the time, were happy to play ball. These were designed to develop and strengthen the current of hatred that was already engendered in Britain. The same thing was done in Germany - untrue headlines were tolerated and even encouraged by the German authorities. Some headlines were: "French doctors infect German wells with plague germs" "German prisoners blinded by Allied captors"
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
Germany utilized a tactic in the war of blockading Britain and preventing food and various arms from being imported into the nation with the hopes of causing the country to starve out. Germany feared that because America was one of the greatest exporters to the war at the time that they would take offense and join the war effort. Germany invented the U boat and sunk a great many neutral ships and eventually sunk the British liner Lusitania which killed hundreds including 128 Americans dead and caused us to enter the war a few years later
United States Entry Into The World War 1
In April of 1917, America entered the war Submarine Warfare and the Lusitania There were unauthorized German submarines along the US East coast. Germany's resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare in the spring of 1917 provided the final straw for US politicians, and America declared war. The first and foremost answer would be the sinking of the Lusitania. 1195 casualties, 128 of which were Americans. The U.S. had huge economic investments with the British and French. If they were to lose, then they would not be able to pay the U.S. debt back (amounting to about two billion dollars while Germany only borrowed a mere 27 million). US wanted to make sure that it got paid back. Germany also purchased arms, but in a much more limited fashion. Propaganda from both sides influenced the American decision. Woodrow Wilson did not want to go to war but when Teddy Roosevelt decided to run for another term, Wilson felt threatened and announced that there would be a preparedness program and possibly that the country would go to war. By entering the war, the US got to flex its muscles on the world stage and establish itself as a world power. Wilson wanted to make the world safe for democracy. Over time a moral sense had developed that Britain and France were fighting the good fight for freedom against a genuine evil. Other points influenced entrance to the war, but the Zimmerman Telegram finally pushed the US to war. sent from the German foreign secretary to the German Ambassador to Mexico. It stated the following: Germany proposes an alliance with Mexico on the following basis: If the US goes to war, Mexico must fight on the home front in a financially supported alliance with Germany; If Mexico agrees to fight, they will reconquer New Mexico, Texas and Arizona. The telegraph was intercepted by British Intelligence.
Russian Revolution
The collective term for a series of revolutions in Russia in 1917, which destroyed the Tsarist autocracy and led to the creation of the Soviet Union. The revolution is important because it occurred during WWI and caused Russia to bail out early and they weren't considered one of the victors despite having some of the most casualties.
Fourteen Points
President Woodrow Wilson's plan for ensuring peace and security before the end of World War 1, for an establishment of peace and included the key self determination and freedom of seas. Established the League of Nations
an agreement that ended the fighting in the First World War. It was signed in a railway carriage in Compiègne Forest on 11 November 1918, and marked a victory for the Allies and a complete defeat for Germany, although not technically a surrender. The Germans were responding to the policies proposed by American President Woodrow Wilson in his Fourteen Points. The actual terms, largely written by French Marshal Ferdinand Foch, included the cessation of hostilities, the withdrawal of German troops to behind their own borders, the preservation of infrastructure, the exchange of prisoners, a promise of reparations, the disposition of German warships and submarines, and conditions for prolonging or terminating the armistice.The exuberance with which people greeted the armistice quickly succumbed to feelings of exhaustion, relief, sorrow, and a sense of absurdity.
Paris Peace Conference
in 1919 the meeting of the Allied victors following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers following the armistices of 1918. discussed and came up with a series of treaties ("Paris Peace Treaties") that reshaped the map of Europe and the world, and imposed war guilt and stiff financial penalties on Germany. At the center of the proceedings were the leaders of the three "Great Powers": President Woodrow Wilson of the United States, and Prime Ministers David Lloyd George of Great Britain and Georges Clemenceau of France. "Germany and newly communist Russia were not invited to attend, but numerous other nations did send delegations, each with a different agenda. The most important results included a punitive peace treaty that declared Germany guilty, weakened its military, and required it to pay all the costs of the war to the winners. This was known as the war guilt clause that was included in the final Treaty of Versailles.
Treaty Of Versailles
October 21, 1919, one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers, and was printed in The League of Nations Treaty Series. Of the many provisions in the treaty, one of the most important and controversial required Germany to accept responsibility for causing the war (along with Austria and Hungary, to disarm, make substantial territorial concessions and pay heavy reparations to certain countries that had formed the Entente powers. The result of these competing and sometimes conflicting goals among the victors was compromise that left none contented: Germany was not pacified or conciliated, nor permanently weakened. This would prove to be a factor leading to later conflicts, notably and directly World War II.
"War Guilt" Clause
The Allied and Associated Governments affirm and Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies.
payments and transfers of property and equipment that Germany was forced to make under the Treaty of Versailles (1919) following its defeat during World War I. Article 231 of the Treaty (the so-called 'war guilt' clause) declared Germany and its allies responsible for all 'loss and damage' suffered by the Allies during the war and provided the basis for reparations. Payments ceased when Adolf Hitler's National Socialist German Workers' Party took power in 1933, with about one-eighth of the initial reparations paid
the right to choose how a nation governs itself. Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated by Serb nationalists who wanted to create a uniquely Serbian country. in 1914 which is the most obvious and pertinent case of self determination causing WW1.
(28 June 1919) a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I, or the legal instruments that contained the internationally agreed upon terms for administering the territory on behalf of the League. With the dissolution of the League of Nations after World War II, it was stipulated at the Yalta Conference that they should be placed under the trusteeship of the United Nations, and most of them belonging to the League of Nations (with the exception of South West Africa) thus eventually became United Nations Trust Territories.
League Of Nations
after world war one this was the grandfather of the United Nations and attempted to join the European nations together after World War 1 and unite all the nations in an attempt to reduce bitterness. It didn't work, however, because they had no intention of joining with their bitter enemies including Germany.
Russian Revolution
Russia drops out of WWI because of this inner-war,, the coup d'etat by the Bolsheviks under Lenin in November 1917 that led to a period of civil war which ended in victory for the Bolsheviks in 1922
Vladamir Lenin
founded the Communist Party in Russia and set up the world's first Communist Party dictatorship. He led the October Revolution of 1917, in which the Communists seized power in Russia. He then ruled the country until his death in 1924.
Russian Communist Party, Led by Vladimir Lenin it was the Russian communist party that took over the Russian government during WWI
A brilliant strategist who served as commander of the victorious Reds in the civil war and Lenin's adviser until Lenin's death. He was very persuasive and had charisma; he was very good at propaganda. He fought Stalin for the head job after Lenin's death in 1924, but lost. (international)
Revolutions of 1917
the collective term for the series of revolutions in Russia in 1917, which destroyed the Tsarist autocracy and led to the creation of the Soviet Union
Russian Civil War
the Russian provisional government collapsed to the Soviets, under the domination of the Bolshevik party.
Bolshevik Red Army, often in temporary alliance with other leftist pro-revolutionary groups, fought against the White Army, the loosely-allied anti-Bolshevik forces. Many foreign armies warred against the Red Army, notably the Allied Forces. Other nationalist and regional political groups also participated in the war, including the Ukrainian nationalist Green Army, the Ukrainian anarchist Black Army and Black Guards. Major military operations ended on 25 October 1922 when the Red Army occupied Vladivostok, previously held by the Provisional Priamur Government.
New Economic Policy (NEP)
A Soviet economic policy from 1921 until 1928 that allowed peasants to sell their produce on the open market and permitted some small-scale private enterprise. Put into being by Vladamir Lenin
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
Federal system of socialist republics established in 1923 in various ethnic regions of Russia; firmly controlled by Communist party; diminished nationalities protest under Bolsheviks; dissolved 1991. Participated in SALT talks with the United States post Cold War
Rich peasants in the Russian Empire who owned larger farms and used hired labor. They were their own class. Prosperous Russian Peasants that - under Stalin - were sent to Labor Camps as punishment for being successful
(Joseph) Stalin
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953), began to modernize the Soviet Union with a 5-year plan. He tried to transform the USSR, Dictator of the Soviet Union; led the Soviet Union through World War II and created a powerful Soviet sphere of influence in Eastern Europe after the war
Five Year Plans
rapid industrialization,First introduced in the Soviet Union in 1928, the government decided on what types of goods and services were to be produced and in what quantities (popular with Communist governments), Stalin's economic policy to rebuild the Soviet economy after WWI. tried to improve heavy industry and improve farm output, but resulted in famine
The Soviet process begun in 1929 under Stalin of forcing peasants onto collective--and, to a lesser extent--state-farms.
Stalin ordered all who opposed him to be killed or put in prison and during the rule of Stalin millions were killed.
Sun Yat-Sen
The leader of the anti-dynastic forces in China,, The first great revolutionary leader in 20th century China who founded the Alliance League in 1905. The League aimed to overthrow the Qing to make china a republic, get rid of foreign powers and distribute land to peasants. He created the three principles of the people, Nationalism, Socialism and Democracy. After the Revolution, he returned from overseas to lead china, however failed to lead successfully. He handed power to Chaing Kai-shek. (Western educated)
a group of men and women, students, and military officers organized into a political party, nationalist party, founded in 1911 by Sun Yat-sen
A military commander exercising civil power in a region, whether in nominal allegiance to the national government or in defiance of it, local military leadership fighting frequently with one another
May Fourth Movement
Resistance to Japanese encroachments in China began on this date in 1919; spawned movement of intellectuals aimed at transforming China into a liberal democracy; rejected Confucianism.
Chinese Communist Party
Party formed in 1921 when Sun Yat-Sen merged the Third Communist International and the KMT to create the first of many liberation fronts. This front was completely anti conservative and anti-imperialist. Eventually it would separate from and defeat the KMT under Mao Zedong in 1927. (Communist party, came to power 1949)
Chiang Kai-shek
General and leader of Nationalist China after 1925. Although he succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Kuomintang (KMT), he became a military dictator whose major goal was to crush the communist movement led by Mao Zedong
Mao Tse-tung
He was the son of a prosperous farmer and a founder of the CCP. He developed a guerrilla army and a Soviet-style government. He abandoned traditional Marxist concepts of reliance on the urban proletariat and turned to the poor peasants; chinese communist leader. He led the communist party of china to victory against the KMT in the chinese civil war; gained power through the Chinese civil war; defeated US backed Chiang Kai Shek
Long March
The 6,000-mile (9,600-kilometer) flight of Chinese Communists from southeastern to northwestern China. The Communists, led by Mao Zedong, were pursued by the Chinese army under orders from Chiang Kai-shek.
Government of India Act (1919)
Passed by the British Parliament in India stating that an electorate of middle class voters was permitted to elect a representative to provincial assemblies in which the party with a majority formed a government that controlled all of the departments of the provincial administration
Indian National Congress
Led by Mahatmas Gandhi and later Jawaharlal Nehru, this group was a nationalistic Indian congress who were at first focused on getting independence from British colonizers and later on greater Indian representation. They launched Swadeshi to get rid of Britain and negotiated with the All India Muslim League. They wanted a greater role for Indians in politics
Amritsar Massacre
A mob of protestors launched by the Indian National Congress to protest the Rowlatt Act, murdered four Europeans while gathered for a meeting afterward where without warning fired on by the British. 379 killed and over 1,200 wounded.
(Mohandas) Gandhi
Born in 1869 in London and perfected the techniques of peaceful protests,, Indian nationalist and spiritual leader who developed the practice of nonviolent disobedience that forced Great Britain to grant independence to India (1947). He was assassinated by a Hindu fanatic.
"Soul force" or "truth force"; a Hindu-based technique of nonviolent protest used by M. K. Gandhi against the white-dominated government of South Africa and later British rule in India.
Salt March
Gandhi led a passive resistance campaign and with his 78 Indian followers walked 200 miles across the sea coast, taking pitchers of salt water from the sea symbolizing defying the salt monopoly and salt tax laws in protest.
movement in India led by the Indian National Congress to boycott British-made products and promote Indian handmade goods as a tool in the fight for independence.
an Indian Muslim politician and leader of the All-India Muslim League who founded Pakistan and served as its first Governor-General. Led the All-India Muslim League
All-India Muslim League (AIML)
Political organization founded in India in 1906 to defend the interests of India's Muslim minority. Led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, it attempted to negotiate with the Indian National Congress. Demanded Pakistan
Government of India Act (1935)
The act by British government that made India a federation of princely states and self-governing provinces., Grants India autonomy, ending the dual form of government established by the Government of India Act 1918. Introduces direct elections for the first time in Indian history.
The creation of a Jewish state in Canon (Jerusalem) but Arabs were already there. They called it the promised land but it was occupied. It advocates Israel maintaining control of East Jerusalem and takes a hard-line approach in the Israeli-Arab conflict. Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook taught that Orthodox (Torah) Judaism embraces and mandates Zionism's positive ideals, such as the ingathering of exiles, and political activity to create and maintain a Jewish political entity in the Land of Israel. In this way, it serves as a bridge between Orthodox and secular Jews.
McMahon-Husayn Correspondence
During World War I, between the Sharif of Mecca, Husayn bin Ali, and Sir Henry McMahon, British High Commissioner in Egypt, concerning the future political status of the lands under the Ottoman Empire. The Arab side was already looking toward a large revolt (which did not eventuate) against the Ottoman Empire and the British encouraged the Arabs to revolt and thus hamper the Ottoman Empire, which had become a German ally in World War 1 after November 1914. The documents declared that the Arabs would revolt in alliance with the United Kingdom and in return the UK will recognize the Arab independence (in the Asian part of the Arab World). Later, in 1917 Sykes-Picot Agreement between France and UK was exposed where the two countries were planning to split and occupy parts of the promised Arab country.
Sykes-Picot Agreement
a secret agreement between the governments of the United Kingdom and France. It effectively divided the Arab provinces of the Ottoman Empire outside the Arabian peninsula into areas of future British and French control or influence. The Russian Tsarist government was a minor party to the Sykes-Picot agreement and when, following the Russian Revolution of October 1917, the Bolsheviks exposed the agreement, 'the British were embarrassed, the Arabs dismayed and the Turks delighted.
Balfour Declaration
a letter from the British Foreign Secretary to a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation of Great Britain and Ireland."His Majesty's government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country." The statement was issued through the efforts of Chaim Weizmann and Nahum Sokolow, the principal Zionist leaders based in London; as they had asked for the reconstitution of Palestine as "the" Jewish national home, the declaration fell short of Zionist expectations.
General Syrian Conference
Formed in response to the Sykes-Picot Agreement. The Syrians believe that they are strong enough to build their own government with a little support, but after their attempt to make Faisal their king fails, they decide to organize their want for independence. They want national self-determination and secularism which would ensure rights. They want to westernize (important because they are showing the West that they are following example). If complete sovereignty is denied to them they want America's help because of Wilson's national self-determination and his 14 points. If not America then they want Britain, but under no means do they want the help of France, because they are France's mandate and France will just control the government; basically an organization of Syria's beliefs in independence.
Cairo Conference
Headed by Winston Churchill, the goal of this conference was to discuss the mandates that Great Britain held with Palestine and Iraq, and draw territorial lines. In this conference, the throne of Iraq was given to Amir Faisal ibn Hussein and he became Faisal I. The boundary lines for Iraq were drawn specifically to suit British interests. The separation and grouping of land was also very difficult for Great Britain because of the many promises that they had formerly made to many areas in the Middle East.
Ibn Saud
a rival of Husayn fought and gained control of leadership in Mecca- Succeeded in established a Saudi Arabian monarchy based on strict adherence to Islamic beliefs.
Mustafa Kemal
Led the Turkish nationalist overthrow of the Ottoman sultan in 1922. He then became the president of the Republic of Turkey in 1923. To modernized Turkey, he separated Islamic laws from the nation's laws. He modeled the new legal system off of European law and also some U.S. law. Women had more right under his rule. They were allowed to vote and hold public office. Finally, his last reform was government-funded programs to industrialize Turkey and to bring about great economic growth. He died in 1938 known as Ataturk, "father of the Turks."
Reza Khan
he was the military officer in Iran who overthrew the Qajar dynasty and moved to Westernize. He retained a monarchy with himself at the helm and his Pahlavi dynasty was overthrown in a popular revolution. He was able to avoid imperial domination, modernize (builds factories roads and railroads and strengthens the army, adopts western alphabet, clothes, schools). More religious. Unlike Ataturk, however, he retained the monarchy with himself at the helm.
(Benito) Mussolini
The prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. He established a repressive fascist regime that valued nationalism, militarism, anti-liberalism and anti-communism combined with strict censorship and state propaganda. He became a close ally of German dictator Adolf Hitler, whom he influenced.
a governmental system led by a dictator having complete power, forcibly suppressing opposition and criticism, regimenting all industry, commerce, etc., and emphasizing an aggressive nationalism and often racism.
Weimar Republic
After WWI, German chancelor resigned and this democratic government came to power. Most germans hated the idea of democracy. Ended because the Depression made people not believe in the Republic, they looked into other political parties
(Adolf) Hitler
(1889-1945) Totalitarian dictator of Germany; his invasion of European countries led to WWII. He espoused notions of racial superiority and was responsible for the mass murder of millions of Jews & others in the Holocaust.
The doctrines of nationalism, racial purity, anti-Communism, and the all-powerful role of the State. advocated by Adolf Hitler in Germany.
Great Depression
the economic crisis and period of low business activity in the U.S. and other countries, roughly beginning with the stock-market crash in October, 1929, and continuing through most of the 1930s.
Enabling Act
enabled Hitler to get rid of the Reichstag parliament and pass laws without reference to parliament. How Hitler finally came to dictator power.
Nuremberg Laws
A set of German Laws that placed severe restrictions of Jews, prohibited from marrying non- Jews, attending schools or universities, holding government jobs, practicing law or medicine or publishing books.
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
Mukden Incident
a "Chinese" attack on a Japanese railway near the city of Mukden (had actually been carried out by Japanese soldiers disguised as Chinese); used by Japan as an excuse to seize Manchuria
Lytton Report
Condemned Japanese forces for aggression and called on it to restore Manchuria to China. But the powers were unwilling to impose sanctions; Japan then withdrew from the league and kept Manchuria
Remilitarization of the Rhineland
March 1936- German troops were sent to the German territory that according to the Versailles and Locarno treaties was to remain demilitarized.
Spanish Civil War
(1926-1939) General Francisco Franco invaded Spain from Spanish Morocco hoping to oust the leftist coalition govt--Mussolini and Hitler support Franco. A rehearsal for WWII.
Hitler's expansionist theory based on a drive to acquire "living space" for the German people. If you aren't using it, we will take it.
one of Hitler's goals for Germany was to unite with Austria. The occupation and annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany in 1938
Munich Conference
Conference in which France agreed with Britain and Italy that the Sudetenland (a part of Czechoslovakia) was to be given to Germany to prevent war, appease
A diplomatic policy aimed at avoiding war by making concessions to another power.
Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
August 23, 1939- for 10 years the Germans and Soviets would refrain from attacking each other and remain neutral if the other became "the object of a belligerent action by third power".
Axis Powers
Germany, Italy, and Japan.
Allied Powers
Great Britain, Russia, France, and US.
Grand Alliance
UK, USA, and USSR.
Rape of Nanking
Infamous genocidal war crime committed by Japanese military in Nanjing. started in 1937 and lasted a few weeks. Japanese army raped, stole and killed prisoners of war and civilians.
Hideki Tojo
Prime minister of Japan during World War II.
Pearl Harbor
United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
The US dropped atomic bombs here during World War II against the Empire of Japan at the order of U.S. President Harry S. Truman.
Atomic bomb
August, 1945. A nuclear weapon in which enormous energy is released by nuclear fission that the US dropped twice on Japan during WWII.
V-J Day
(September 2, 1945). "Victory over Japan day" is the celebration over the surrender of Japan
1939. "Lighting war", typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland.
Vichy France
Southern Pro-Nazi French; govern themselves as loyal to Nazis; traitors to the Free French in N. France.
Winston Churchill
British statesman and leader during World War II who creates Battle of Britain.
Battle of Britain
An aerial battle fought in World War II in 1940 between the German Luftwaffe (air force), which carried out extensive bombing in Britain, and the British Royal Air Force, which offered successful resistance.
Lend-Lease Act
The American Act to help supply and aid the Allies [you can have all this but we (U.S.) are going to get power in the end]
German Invasion of USSR
in 1941 the Germans invaded the Soviet Union in direct opposition to the Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact, believing that if they caught the Soviets off guard then they could easily occupy the country with little collateral
"Dooms Day" June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. Attack from both sides, Germany lost, Berlin wall Falls, and 2 Front War.
V-E Day
"Victory Europe Day" May 8, 1945 when the Germans surrendered.
The Nazi program of exterminating Jews under Hitler.
"Final Solution"
Genocide of all Jews, Slavs, homosexuals, and communists in Germany.
Nuremberg Trials
(1945) Series of trials conducted by an International Military Tribunal in which former Nazi leaders were charged with crimes against peace, crimes against humanity, and war crimes.
Yalta Conference
FDR, Churchill and Stalin met in Crimea, southern Ukraine. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
Potsdam Conference
The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held outside Berlin, in July, 1945. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.
Iron Curtain
Winston Churchill's term for the Cold War division between the Soviet-dominated East and the U.S.-dominated West Europe.
Emphasis on "containing" communism, preventing its advance until the people got tired of Marxism and overthrew the govt.
Truman Doctrine
A policy pledging support to any nation that wants to be free, attempt to prevent spread of communism. If anyone (primarily communist belligerents) invades a place where the public is fighting for freedom then we will intervene. We are the global police. Led to Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
1948-US Congress created the European Recovery Program and Secretary of State George Marshall proposed that the nations of Europe consult with one another and with the US to determine the amount of economic assistance they would need to rebuild their economics. $13 billion in economic assistance
Communist Information Bureau (COMINFORM)
The official forum of the international communist movement since the dissolution of Comintern. It confirmed realities of WWII such as the creation of a communist state. Spread Communism across the world.
Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
The Soviet Union's response to the Marshall Plan, whereby the Soviet Union offered economic aid packages for Eastern European countries.
Berlin Blockade
April 1, 1948 - Russia under Stalin blockaded Berlin completely in the hopes that the West would give the entire city to the Soviets to administer. To bring in food and supplies, the U.S. and Great Britain mounted air lifts which became so intense that, at their height, an airplane was landing in West Berlin every few minutes. West Germany was a republic under Franc, the U.S. and Great Britain. Berlin was located entirely within Soviet-controlled East Germany.
Berlin Airlift
Western governments gathered all available cargo planes and used the air corridors to supply more than 2 million West Berliners and Western troops with essentials.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
1949, set up by Truman,a regional defensive alliance in which the US and Latin American nations agreed to come to the aid of any member nation with aggression--members: US, Canada, Iceland, Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Great Britain, France, Portugal, Italy, Greece, and Turkey--goal: eventual integration of the national armed forces of the member nations into a unified military command--dominated by the US military establishment with US general as supreme commander, also known as NATO.
Warsaw Pact
USSR formalized a competing military alliance system and integrated the armed forces of Eastern Europe into a unified force under USSR command.
Hydrogen Bomb
The Soviet Union's testing of an atomic bomb motivated America to develop a hydrogen bomb with 1000 times the power of the atomic bomb. A thermonuclear bomb which uses the fusion of isotopes of hydrogen.
Nikita Khrushchev
Stalin's successor, wanted peaceful coexistence with the U.S. Eisenhower agreed to a summit conference with him, France and Great Britain in Geneva, Switzerland in July, 1955 to discuss how peaceful coexistence could be achieved.
Secret Speech
To a closed session of the Twentieth Congress of the Communist Pasty of the USSR; Nikita Khrushchev criticized Stalin's policies including his elimination of many innocent people during the 1930s.
Hungarian Rebellion
A nationwide revolt against the government of People's Republic of Hungary and its Soviet imposed policies. The revolt began as a student demonstration when a student entered the radio building to attempt to broadcast its demands. They were fired upon by the State Security Police, which triggered the news to spread quickly.
Intercontinental Ballistic Missile
A ballistic missile that is capable of traveling from one continent to another and commonly known as ICBM.
First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space.
U-2 Spy Plane Incident
marking the deterioration of US relations with Soviet Union, this incident occurred when a United State's spy plane was shot down over Soviet Union airspace. Although denying the plane's purpose at first, it was forced to admit the plane's role as a surveillance aircraft. This happened 2 weeks before the East-West summit in Paris.
Berlin Wall
A wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West.
The lessening of tensions during the 1970s in the cold war between the Communist bloc and NATO countries, especially between the Soviet Union and the United States.
Leonid Brezhnev
Post Kruschev, His eighteen year term as General Secretary was one of the lengthiest, second only to that of Joseph Stalin. his rule saw the global influence of the Soviet Union's grow dramatically, in part because of the expansion of the Soviet Army during this time. His tenure as leader has often been criticized for marking the beginning of a period of economic stagnation which would eventually lead to the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.
Prague Spring
In 1968, Czechoslovakia, under Alexander Dubcek, began a program of reform. Dubcek promised civil liberties, democratic political reforms, and a more independent political system. The Soviet Union invaded the country and put down the short-lived period of freedom.
Brezhnev Doctrine
Policy proclaimed in 1968 and declaring that the Soviet Union had the right to intervene in any Socialist country whenever it determined there was a need. (Response to Truman Doctrine)
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT)
negotiations between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics opened in 1969 in Helsinki designed to limit both countries' stock of nuclear weapons. Established during Detente period.
Helsinki Agreements
the final act of the Conference on Security and Co-Operation in Europe. 35 states (US, Canada, and all European states except Albania and Andorra) signed the declaration in an attempt to improve Western relations with the communist bloc.
Polish trade union created in 1980 to protest working conditions and political repression. It began the nationalist opposition to communist rule that led in 1989 to the fall of communism in eastern Europe.
Strategic Defense Initiative
Popularly known as "Star Wars," President Reagan's SDI proposed the construction of an elaborate computer-controlled, anti-missile defense system capable of destroying enemy missiles in outer spaced. Critics claimed that SDI could never be perfected.
Mikhail Gorbachev
Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe. (p. 863)
Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union.
a policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society
Revolutions of 1989
Poland, East Germany, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia; countries decide that they will no longer be communist, Also known as the Fall of Communism, these are the revolutions which overthrew Soviet-style communism state in Eastern-bloc European countries.
Collapse of the Soviet Union
Communism collapsed in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe during 1989 - 1991; the Cold War also ended during. Due to economic stagnation, independence push for Soviet Bloc nations + work of Mikhail Gorbachev.
European Union
An organization whose goal is to unite Europe so that goods, services, and workers can move freely among member countries. An international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members.
1947-1962 The collapse of colonial empires. practically all former colonies in Asia and Africa gained independence. Inspired by self determination and weakness of Western Nations
38th Parallel
1948, latitudinal line that divided North and South Korea at approximately the midpoint of the peninsula. Korean War began in 1950 when North Korea crossed the line. Korea was divided because of post WWII agreements. (previously Japanese territory).
North Korea
After WWII, the Soviets and Americans divided Korea into North Korea and South Korea. This section came under soviet influence and became communist. Since the 1940's, it has become one of the most isolated and dictatorial societies in the world. Kim Jong IL the leader is an uncompromising Communist and is ruthlessly oppressive. Their economic collapse and its insistence on maintaining a huge military are threatening mass starvation for its people.
South Korea
he antagonism between the Soviet Union and the US led to the establishment of 2 separate Korean governments. This democratic country was overruled by the US and Syngman Rhee was installed as president.
Korean War
1950-1953 The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
Domino Theory
the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control. Beginning with China --> Korea --> Vietnam
South East Asia Treaty Organization
SEATO an international organization for collective defense primarily created to block communism gains in Southeast Asia. Signed by Australia, France, New Zealand, Pakistan (including East Pakistan, now Bangladesh), Philippines, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States. (NATO for use in the Pacific)
French Indochina
a French colony that included Vietnam ,Laos, and Cambodia, but Vietminh captured the French fortress of Dien Bien Phy, North was a Communist State, south independent, they wanted to resist of Communism.
Ho Chi Minh
1950s and 60s; communist leader of North Vietnam; used geurilla warfare to fight anti-comunist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine; brilliant strategy drew out war and made it unwinnable. When young, attempted to petition for freedom but ignored by French
1946 - 1954 an organization of Vietnamese Communists and other nationalist groups that fought for Vietnamese independence from the French
Viet Cong
1959-1975, a Communist-led army and guerrilla force in South Vietnam that fought its government and was supported by North Vietnam.
Vietnam War
a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States. Proxy war between the Soviet Union and the US.
Ho Chi Minh Trail
a network of jungle paths winding from North Vietnam through Laos and Cambodia into South Vietnam, used as a military route by North Vietnam to supply the Vietcong during the Vietnam War.
Tet Offensive
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year, which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism as they briefly took but lost Saigon, but a philosophical victory. Americans reacted accordingly, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
Paris Agreement
1973, The agreement for ending the war and restoring peace in Vietnam after a decade of war, Vietnam finally indicated that it wished to cease fire with the US. The agreement was a success.
Chinese Civil War
1927-1949, War between communist Mao Zse Tong and nationalist Chaing-Kai Shek. The communists took over and forced the nationalists to retreat to Taiwan. Between KMT and CCP, and the Chinese Communist Party were victorious over the KMT.
People's Republic of China
A totalitarian state that carried out policies set by the Communist Party. Claimed/ created by Mao on October 1st, 1949 and recognized by the Soviet Union.
Great Leap Forward
1958, China's second five-year plan under the leadership of the impatient Mao, it aimed to speen up economic development while simultaneously developing a completely socialitst society. This plan failed because of lack of incentive to work and more than 20 million people starved between 1958 and 1960. Mass industrialization, Mass irrigation, and Mass mobilization. Theory of Productive Forces- Marxist idea that ensures a surplus prior to socialism (people must work for nothing to get something), Forced.
Cultural Revolution
1965-1967, Campaign in China ordered by Mao Zedong to purge the Communist Party of his opponents and instill revolutionary values in the younger generation. Intended to eliminate counterrevolutionary elements in the government. Had students kill teachers and parents when they disagreed. Encouraged youth to denounce and rebel against capitalist leaders of China
Deng Xiaoping
Served in various positions from 1959-1989, Communist Party leader who forced Chinese economic reforms after the death of Mao Zedong. Purge of intellectuals, willing to make far range economic reforms for wealth but unwilling to make political reforms. Opened Mao's "closed door policy". Put down student demonstration on Tienanmen square. Wants Western ideas without Westernization
Tiananmen Square
1989, Site in Beijing where Chinese students and workers gathered to demand greater political openness from the Communist government. The demonstration was crushed by Chinese military with great loss of life. Censorship was imposed and repressive policies were established with the army turning on civilians.
Partition of India and Pakistan
Pre-1930, public wanted an united India. Post-1930, Muslims wanted a state of their own in fear that Muslim communities would face discrimination and danger in a predominantly Hindu India. The borders of the new states were not finalized which resulted in massive migrations and deaths. Kashmir wanted to be independent of both nations. A war was raged over Kashmir which resulted in the border that came to be known as the Line of Control. India and Pakistan attempted to join but differences in culture, religion, language, and overpopulation prevent it
Jawaharlal Nehru
Served from 1947-1964. Independent "non aligned" Indian statesman. He succeeded Mohandas K. Gandhi as leader of the Indian National Congress. He negotiated the end of British colonial rule in India and became India's first prime minister. Elevated lower castes and status of women. Believed the First World was NATO, Second World was the Warsaw Pact, and the third were all the "non-aligned" nations. "Mediator" of Communism vs. Capitalism
an area in southwestern Asia whose sovereignty is disputed between Pakistan and India. Hindu ruler of mostly Muslim nation created tension.
Indira Gandhi
Served from 1966-1977. Daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, India's first female prime minister. She was also prime minister of India. There was a lot of religious tension between the Hindus and Sikhs. In previous matters, Indira had favored the Sikhs. They were her body guards, but when she sided against them in 1984 over a temple issue, she was assassinated by her own bodyguard.
Formerly East Pakistan. a Muslim republic in southern Asia bordered by India to the north and west and east and the Bay of Bengal to the south. independent in 1972. India surrounded by both Bangladesh and Pakistan. War breaks out but Bangladesh is victorious
Benazir Bhutto
a Pakistani politician who chaired the Pakistan People's Party and the first woman elected to lead a Muslim State. She has been elected twice and was Pakistan's first and only female prime minister. She heavily focused on education and women's rights. Administration accused of corruption
"Dirty War"
(1976-1982) Argentinean years of harsh authoritarian rule and rightist death squads followed, which resulted not only in the near elimination of the Communists guerrillas but also kidnapping, torturing and/or killing of some 30,000 Argentine citizens during a period of state terrorism.
Latin American plan to shrink state expenditures (debt) as much as possible and thereby minimize government's interference in the free play of market forces. Laissez Faire Government. Slashing public funding for education, health care, public transport and other areas while permitting the unimpeded flow of foreign capital. Proposed free markets, balanced budgets, privatization, free trade, and minimal government intervention in the economy. Big foreign intervention means countries can buy Latin America out
Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)
(1948) (1934 - present) leftist political party in Mexico that helped to introduce democracy and maintain political stability for much of the 20th century. Democratic Insurgencies and Economic Crisis. Gets corrupt in 1960 from massive influx of money. Upsets students and middle class who begin to demonstrate and march against the PRI and the Tlatelolco Massacre.
Tlatelolco Massacre
1968, The largest single massacre of civilians by government troops in North America since WWII. Entailed the most destructive use of force against Mexican people by their government on student protestors at National University and Tlatelolco square. The massacre became an important historical memory for modern Mexican political dissidents advocating political reform in the one-party rule of Mexican politics. Anywhere from 30-300 people killed, happened ten days before Olympics
Juan Perón
President of Argentina (1945-1955, 1973-1974). As a military officer, he championed the rights of labor. Aided by his wife, he was elected president in 1946. He built up Argentinean industry, became very popular among the urban poor. In charge for 28 years. Goes from agriculture to industry. United States and European investors dictated markets in Argentina. Doing well with foreign investments but couldn't pay debts and inflation continued to increase.
Falklands War
In 1982, when Argentina attempted to take control of the Falkland Islands (one of Britain's few remaining colonial outposts) 300 miles off its coast, the British successfully rebuked the Argentines, Had a great economic cost, and lost 225 lives, but had much popular patriotic support for Thatcher. Argentina wanted to reclaim the land for support but Britain won.
Salvador Allende
1970-1973 Elected President of Chile. a member of the Socialist Party, he attempted to institute a number of democratic reforms in Chilean politics. He was overthrown and assassinated in 1973 during a military coup lead by General Augusto Pinochet. Assassination raid led by Pinochet believed to have been funded by US.
Augusto Pinochet
1973-1990, He was the Chilean dictator who was responsible for instituting the reforms set out by the Chicago Boys. His leadership was backed by the US and was carried out through a coup against a democratically elected, leftist leader. At the behest of the advice given by the group, He forcefully transformed the Chilean economy into one of the freest market economies that the world had even seen. He got rid of civil rights and political freedoms. Pinochet made sure to employ the military to protect the Chicago Boys and ensure that no outside influence would taint their ideology. Ruled with an iron fist, Catholic and used dirty war to get rid of opposing people.
Somoza Family
an influential political dynasty who ruled Nicaragua as a hereditary dictatorship, their influence exceeding their combined 43 years in the de facto presidency. They ultimately fell a revolution led by the Sandinista National Liberation Front. Suppressed trade unions, community organizers, and left wing organizers. Pocketed foreign aid when the 1972 Managua earthquake struck. Largest drug (cocaine) exporters to the United States.
Sandinista Revolution
This was a revolution in which a group of Creoles led by a native of Bluefields raided a Somoza-owned business to gain access to food, guns and money before heading off to join Sandinista fighters.Uprising against Somoza family. Not for aligning with Russia or US. For grassroots democracy and a mixed economy. Were unable to fund their programs because the Sandinistas had to fight off Somoza family.
Anti-Sandinista fighters in the Nicaraguan civil war. Secretly supplied with American military aid, paid for with money the United States clandestinely made selling arms to Iran. Contra War was that the United States agreed not to be involved with the Nicaraguan war between Sandinistas and Somoza's military while the US actually used money gained from selling arms to Iran, despite trade embargo, to fund the Somoza family and their fight against the Sandanistas.
Fulgencio Batista
(1933-1944) & (1952-1959) President of Cuba from and and was closely allied with the United States government, and American economic interests. At the end of his rule, he was incredibly repressive, although constantly supported by the United States, until he was overthrown by Fidel Castro.
Fidel Castro
(1959 - 1976) Cuban revolutionary leader who overthrew the corrupt regime of the dictator Fulgencio Batista in 1959 and soon after established a Communist state. He was prime minister of Cuba from 1959 to 1976 and has been president of the government and First Secretary of the Communist Party since 1976.
Bay of Pigs
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure. This unsuccessful invasion pushes Castro to become a Communist
Cuban Missile Crisis
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later. 1. Isolated Cuba from everyone, Russia doesn't want to start war with US, US doesn't want war with Russia. 2. US takes upper hand over Russia because Russia backs down. 3. Communications between Russia and US gets better
Che Guevara
(1928-1967) an Argentine Marxist revolutionary, physician, author, intellectual, guerrilla leader, diplomat, military theorist, and major figure of the Cuban Revolution, supporting Castro's party as the overthrow Batista. Since his death, his stylized visage has become a ubiquitous counter-cultural symbol. Assisted Cuban Forces by training them for repelling the Bay of Pigs invasion.
Kwame Nkrumah
Leader of nonviolent protests for freedom on the Gold Coast. When independence was gained, he became the first prime minister of Ghana. He developed economic projects, but was criticized for spending too much time on Pan-African efforts, and neglecting his own countries' issues
Convention People's Party (CPP)
Ruled over Ghana when it became the first post-colonial independent country in black Africa. It was organized by Kwame Nkrumah, the first president of Ghana. Organized nonviolent protests in support of independence and helped to convince the British to give up their colony. Under Nkrumah's personal rule. This was the only legal party during much of Ghana's early years of independence.
West African Christian culture in the North that created the Baifran state to fight for independence against Nigerian government. Greatly celebrates birth of a son.
these people spoke a common language and originally belonged to a number of small city-states in the forests on the southern edge of the savanna in what is today Benin and southwestern Nigeria.
one of Nigeria's three major ethnic groups, are predominantly Muslim and live mostly in the north. Fight with the Christian Baifran Igbos in the Baifran War over religious differences.
Republic of Biafra
An Nigerian ethnic group that declared independence in 1960s in oil district. Led to unrest in the rest of the country. A separatist movement led to three year civil war with estimated one million casualties. This led to lasting competition between ethnic groups for economic and political power in their individual regions
Biafran War
(1967-1970) The Nigerian Civil War, Nigeria vs Biafran state. Biafran state was established by Igbos, the Christians in Southern Nigeria, against the Muslim North. A tragic and bloody civil war pitted elements of independent Africa's best national armies against each other. The larger federal forces slowly chipped away at Biafran State. The estimated death toll soared above one million. the overwhelming majoroty of who were Igbo civilians, mostly refugees, who died of starvation. Biafrans surrendered in January of 1970 to the Nigerian State, which united all of Nigeria.
Jomo Kenyatta
Kenyan Nationalist who used strong leadership to help gain Kenya's independence, and became the first president; presented Kikuyu grievances to the British government in London.
Kenyan African Union (KAU)
Kenya's dominant party from the early 1960s to 2002. It played an important role in uniting people behind the idea of independence for Kenya and was for many years the only legal party in the country.
Mau Mau Uprising
(1952 to 1960) an insurgency by Kenyan rebels against the British colonialist rule. The core of the resistance was formed by members of the Kikuyu ethnic group, along with smaller numbers of Embu and Meru. The uprising failed militarily, though it may have hastened Kenyan independence. It created a rift between the white colonial community in Kenya and the Home Office in London that set the stage for Kenyan independence in 1963. Practiced and preached Pan-Africanism
a system of legal racial segregation enforced by the National Party government in South Africa between 1948 and 1994, under which the rights of the majority black inhabitants of South Africa were curtailed and minority rule by whites was maintained.
African National Congress (ANC)
A democratic organization dedicated to obtaining equal voting and civil rights for black inhabitants of South Africa. Founded in 1912 as the South African Native National Congress, it changed its name in 1923. Eventually brought equality (809)
Sharpeville Massacre
(March 21, 1960) township, by Johannesburg. Pan Africanist Congress led campaign of blacks to surrender themselves for arrest and led to small clashes and then the police firing, killing and wounding up to 70 African non-violent protestors.
Nelson Mandela
Leader of the African National Congress who was jailed for his opposition to apartheid in South Africa. He was later elected president in 1994 when free elections were established, and was instrumental in a new democratic constitution being written in 1996.
Impoverished black neighborhood outside Johannesburg, South Africa, and the site of a violent uprising in 1976 in which hundreds were killed; that rebellion began a series of violent protest and responses from the government that helped end apartheid.
Steven Biko
Founder of the Black Consciousness Movement, he inspired blacks in South Africa to express their pride as a people and to confront the apartheid system as a group. His death in police custody angered members of all races and ultimately served to intensify the struggle against the South African regime both inside and outside the country's borders
Desmond Tutu
The leading spokesman of passive resistance to apartheid in the 1980's. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983 for his attempts to replace apartheid with a racially equal South African society.
F.W. de Klerk
Elected as the last white South African president in 1989. He legalized the African National Congress and also released Nelson Mandela from prison. This started a new era in South Africa and worked with the ANC to end apartheid
A nationalist movement built on the shared heritage of Arabs who lived in the lands from the Arabian Peninsula to North Africa. [Middle East] (movement)
Arab League
In 1945 the British encouraged this group to keep the peace and continue giving the British oil. Includes Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Yemen, and Iraq and was formed with British encouragement, as a protection against Soviet expansion in the Middle East and to continue to give the British oil. [Middle East] (group)
Gamal Abdel Nasser
1952 He led the coup which toppled the monarchy of King Faruk and started a new period of modernization and socialist reform in Egypt. Arab leader who set out to modernize Egypt and end western domination, nationalized the Suez canal, led two wars against the Zionist state, remained a symbol of independence and pride, returned to socialism, nationalized banks and businesses, limited economic policies and was seen by many as a man of the people. [Middle East] (person)
Aswan Dam
In Egypt, the Government harnessed agricultural output and hydroelectricity to improve the standard of living, a new industrial base,increase agricultural land and hydroelectric power for villages, and initially supported by the US but in the end the Soviet Union due to an alliance with China. (Gamal Abdel Nasser) [Middle East]
Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan
The Soviet Union sends 80,000 troops into Afghanistan to back Barack Kamal and his regime against armed Muslims who had training and aid from the US, Soviet Union loses due to guerrilla warfare and troublesome terrain. A nine-year conflict involving Soviet forces supporting the Marxist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan government against the Mujahideen resistance. [Middle East]
Muslim fighters in Afghanistan. The best-known were the various loosely aligned Afghan opposition groups, which initially rebelled against the incumbent pro-Soviet (DRA) government during the late 1970s. Supported by the United States during war against Russia.
Iranian Revolution
(1978-1979) A revolution against the Mohammad Reza Shah of Iran led by the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, which resulted in Iran becoming an Islamic Republic with Khomeini as its leader. Mullahs (religious leaders) overthrow the US backed Shah and establish a theocracy (religious government) that hated the US. [Middle East] (revolution)
Mohammad Reza Shah
the monarch of Iran until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 by Ayatollah Khomeini. Son of Reza Khan who follows in his fathers footsteps and creates the White Revolution, the people see him as a selfish man. [Middle East] (person)
White Revolution
"A step towards modernization," a far-reaching series of reforms in Iran launched in 1963 by the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Muhammad Reza Shah's series of western economic and social reforms built especially to strengthen those classes that supported the traditional system and transform Iran into a global power that fail miserably. [Middle East] (revolution)
Muhammad Reza Shah's secret police force who tortured and killed religious leaders and monitors and suppresses religious leadership. The secret police, domestic security and intelligence service established by Iran's Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi by recommendation of the UK government and with the help of the US' Central Intelligence Agency and Israel's Mossad. It was one of the main reasons that the government, after the fall of the Shah, so greatly opposed the US and held the embassy hostage for over a year. [Middle East] (group)
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
Shi'ite philosopher and cleric who led the overthrow of the Shah of Iran in 1979 and created an Islamic Republic. At first was sent into exile, came back from exile, established a parallel government. Very quickly became clear that power was his. Created Islamic Republic and became its head. Speaks out against Muhammad Reza Shah and completely changes Iran-theocracy. [Middle East] (person)
Saddam Hussein
President of Iraq in 1979, man of the people before he became president, joins the Ba'athist party, maintained power through the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988) and the first Persian Gulf War (1991). [Middle East] (person)
Iran-Iraq War
This war began on September 22 1980 following a long history of border disputes and fears of Shia insurgency among Iraq's long suppressed Shia majority and influenced by Iran's Islamic revolution. Iran started Islamic Revolutions and in trying to stop these revolutions, Saddam Hussein attacked in the year 1980. [Middle East] (war)
Gulf War
(August 2, 1990)The invasion of Kuwait by Iraqi troops. met with international condemnation, and brought immediate economic sanctions against Iraq by members of the UN Security Council. U.S. President George H. W. Bush deployed American forces into Saudi Arabia, and an array of nations joined the coalition. The great majority of the military forces in the coalition were from the US, Saudi, UK, and Egypt. This was a decisive victory for the coalition forces, who liberated Kuwait and advanced into Iraqi territory. The coalition ceased their advance, and declared a cease-fire. Aerial and ground combat was confined to Iraq, Kuwait, and areas on the border of Saudi Arabia. However, Iraq launched Scud missiles against coalition military targets in Saudi Arabia and against Israel.
A fundamentalist Islamic militia that in 1995 took over Afghanistan. In 1996 took over Kabul and set up an Islamic government that enforced a strict Muslim code. [Middle East] (group)
Arab-Israeli Conflict
This conflict has been going on for years. It started when both the Jewish and Arab Palestinians wanted Palestine for their own. Eventually the Jews got control of Palestine, but there has been a number of wars and terrorist attacks between these two. This conflict continues today. [Middle East] (conflict)
Supporters of Jewish nationalism, especially a creation of a Jewish state in Palestine. [Middle East] (group)
A displaced group of Arabs who lived or still live in the area formerly called Palestine. Against Jewish state in Palestine. [Middle East] (group)
Untied Nations Special Committee on Palestine recommended Palestine be divided into a Jewish state and an Arab state. (opposed by Palestinians, reluctantly accepted by Zionists) [Middle East] (group)
Resolution 181
UN Partition Plan for Palestine was a resolution adopted in 1947 by the General Assembly of the UN. Recommended the partition of the territory into 2 states, Jewish and Arab, with the Jerusalem/Bethlehem area being super special protection by the UN. This partition opposed by Palestinians (gave too much land to Zionists) and reluctantly accepted by Zionists (upset about not getting all land). The British withdrew May 1948. [Middle East]
Arab-Israeli War (1948)
Surrounding Arab states and Palestinian Arabs refused to recognize new state (start of Arab-Israeli war), Arab forces no match for Israelis, Israelis won 1948-expanded territory by one-third more than granted by UN partition, West Bank incorporated into Jordan, Jerusalem divided between Israeli and Jordanian control, Gaza Strip administered by Egypt, and before and during the war many Palestinian farmers and peasants fled- Arabs said threat the refugees had been forced to leave because of Zionist terrorism and violence, Israeli's said that they were not responsible for the refugees and that they left as a result of Arab pressures or own free will. [Middle East] (war)
Suez Crisis (1956)
A war fought by Britain, France, and Israel against Egypt beginning on October 29th, 1956. The attack followed Egypt leader Nasser's decision to nationalize the Suez Canal, after the withdrawal of an offer by Britain and the US to fund the build of the Aswan Dam, which was partly in response to Egypt recognizing the People's Republic of China during the height of tensions between China and Taiwan. [Middle East] (crisis)
Six-Day War (1967)
Israel launched a preemptive strike against the airfields of Egypt, the major Arab nation, and other surrounding Arab nations, destroying Arab air strength within six hours starting this war in June 1967 and it lasted six days but was really won by Israel within those first six hours, Israel defeated the Arab forces and occupied the Gaza Strip, the entire Sinai Peninsula, the West Bank, and the Golan Heights. [Middle East] (war)
West Bank
Is a landlocked territory and is the eastern Part of the Palestinian territories on the _____ of the River Jordan. It was captured by Israel during the Six-Day War in June, 1967. [Middle East] (place)
Gaza Strip
The piece of land that borders Egypt on the southwest and Israel on the south, east and north. It lies on the Eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. It is one of the territorial units forming the Palestinian territories. [Middle East] (place)
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)
The Arab group led by Yasir Arafat in the 1960's to regain the Arab land in Israel for Palestinian Arabs in Palestine. This resulted in a number of Palestinian guerrilla groups emerging from the disasters of the 1967 war who form loose alliances under the umbrella of this organization. Began a series of raids and attacks into Israeli territory; when these tactics failed to secure the objective of Palestinian state. [Middle East] (organization)
Yasir Arafat
Arab-Israeli Conflict--known as the father of Palestinian nationalism, he was the leader of the PLO and the Palestinian Autonomous Region in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank city of Jericho. An enigmatic figure who was a political and military tactician of unrivaled skill, he led Palestine in war-through defeat and victory-and in peace. Ultimately, for better or worse, his legacy has to include bringing the attention of the world to the Palestinian cause [Middle East] (person)
Anwar Sadat
A fellow army officer with Nasser, succeeded as Egyptian president following Nasser's death, October 1973, after years of preparation launched a successful attack across the canal to take back Egyptian territory and force negotiations to settle the long-term conflict, after war was hailed as the Arab leader who had taken the resolution of the Arab-Israeli conflict off the back burner and placed it at the forefront of international attention. [Middle East] (person)
Yom Kippur War (1973)
October 1973- after several years of preparation which he called his "year of decision", Sadat launched a successful attack on the across the canal to take back territory lost in the six day war. Negotiations to settle the long term conflict, weeks of tank and air battles in the Sinai making a counter-crossing onto the western bank of the canal, caused a major confrontation between the Soviets (back Syria) and the US (backs Israel), a cease-fire was implemented (both sides claimed victory). Egypt and Syria attacked Israel in October 1973; Israel counterattacked and drove the Syrians back and crossed the Suez Canal into Egypt. [Middle East] (war)
Camp David Talks
In the US in the fall of 1978, when President Jimmy Carter directly mediated between Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin, culminated with the signing of a peace treaty between Egypt and Israel in the spring of 1979. [Middle East]
Lebanon War (1982)
Israel launched a full scale invasion of Lebanon (bombarded by land, sea and air)-- Israeli's and their Lebanese Christian allies besieged West Beirut., before the war, Lebanon was being used as a base for the PLO. Therefore, the Israelis didn't like it. In June 1982, Israel full-on attacked Lebanon. It was very bloody. Finally, the PLO fighters were evacuated secretly under international peacekeeping forces. Eventually, Israel withdrew from the area after attacks on Israeli occupying forces intensified. [Middle East] (war)
December 1987 full-scale uprising, Palestinians demonstrated, went on strike, boycotted Israeli goods and services, and threw stones. The Israeli army retaliated with an Iron Fist policy in an attempt to smash the uprising. [Middle East] (revolt)
Oslo Accords
1992 - Israeli Rabin and PLO's Arafat met. The Gaza Strip and West Bank were self-governed for the Palestinians, and Arafat agreed to recognize Israel as a country. [Middle East] (document)