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weaker, semi-solid, plastic-like layer beneath Earth's lithosphere on which lithospheric plates move

Cinder cone volcano

small, violently erupting volcano formed by accumulation of large pyroclastic materials around a vent

Composite volcano

large volcano formed by alternating lava flows and violently erupting pyroclastic materials

Convergent boundary

plate tectonic boundary where lithospheric plates collide


boundary marking an abrupt density change between Earth's layers

Divergent boundary

plate tectonic boundary where lithospheric plates are moving apart

Elastic rebound

sudden energy release that accompanies fault movement and causes earthquakes, or seismic vibrations


point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's center


crack in Earth's crust along which movement has taken place


pint of origin of an earthquake

Mid-ocean ridge

a system of twin mountain ranges with a rift valley between them that extends around Earth on the sea-floor; formed where two oceanic plates are force apart due to magma rising from Earth's mantle; a source of new rock

Rift valley

long, linear, dropped-down valley between twin, parallel mountain ranges produced by faulting

Shadow zone

"dead zone" between 105 and 140 degrees from an earthquake's epicenter, where nothing is recorded on a seismogram


occurs when lithospheric plates converge and the edge of one plate is forced downward beneath another; recycles old lithospheric plates

Transform boundary

plate tectonic boundary that exists as a large fault, or crack, along which lithospheric plates move in a horizontal direction


a fluid's resistance to flow

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