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132 terms


-An area of land covered with tall grass, trees and shrubs.
-A system made up of plants and animals that depend on each other for survival.
-An imaginary line that splits the Earth into its southern and northern hemispheres.
-The horizontal lines on a globe used to locate places in the north and south.
-A weather occurrence where water drops from the sky in the form of rain, hail, sleet or snow.
-A dry weather period where there is little or no rainfall.
-The circle of flat lands around the Artic Ocean that do not have trees.
-A piece of land that is frozen so deeply that only the surface thaws occasionally in the summer.
-The unique shape and features of a piece of land.
-Refers to the country and the characteristics of the country, such as the people or agriculture.
-Minerals or other organic manner made by weather elements, such as ice, water or air.
-The process of a rural area becoming more populated and taking on the characteristics of a city
-A prediction about future occurrences based on the knowledge gained by past events and tests.
-essential items and elements that help to preserve life, such as food and wate
-The spread of one society's culture to other areas.
-The measured altitude of a land mass above or below sea level.
-Two specific annual days where the hours in the day are equal to the hours at night. The days signify the start of the spring and fall seasons.
-Any earthly location where animal and human life are found, which includes the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere.
-a large group or chain of islands:
-the seasonal wind of the Indian Ocean and southern Asia, blowing from the southwest in summer and from the northeast in winter.
Red Army
-the Soviet army.
-an unusually large sea wave produced by a seaquake or undersea volcanic eruption.
-a worldwide Jewish movement that resulted in the establishment and development of the state of Israel.
-a member of an Islamic people speaking Kurdish and dwelling chiefly in Kurdistan.
Nile River
-A river in E Africa, the longest in the world, flowing N from Lake Victoria to the Mediterranean. Lots of resources surrounding, 4,000 miles in Uganda, Sudan, and into Egypt
-A desert in N Africa, extending from the Atlantic to the Nile valley, 20 is sand, also contains rock and mountains
Dead Sea
-A salt lake between Israel and Jordan: the lowest lake in the world.
Ural mountains
-Forms a natural boundary between Europe and Asia. Separates Northern European and West Siberian
Command economy
-Central government makes all important economic decisions
russian revolution
-Revolt put an end to the Russian Empire and the rule of Czars
Gorgee islands
-departure point for slaves during slave trade
-policy of separation of races in South Asia
-Any geological formation containing or conducting ground water, esp. one that supplies the water for wells, springs, etc.600ft below desert
-where crude oil is converted to useful products
-An organization founded in 1960 of nations that export large amounts of petroleum: set prices. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
lake Baikal
-A lake in the Russia: the deepest freshwater lake in the world. Holds up to 20% of the worlds freshwater.
guest worker
-A foreign worker, unskilled laborer, recruited from South and East Asia
Strategic commodity
-important resource, nations got to war to ensure steady supply
himalaya mountains
-Between India and China, highest peak Mt. Everest
-violent storm with fierce winds
ganges river
-important river considered sacred by Hindus
nonviolent resistance
-form of protest with no violence by Gandhi
Caste system
-Hindu system of social classes
-The ninth month of the Muslim calendar. Month long fasting by Muslims.
constitutional monarchies
-Limited monarchy; rulers powers limited by monarchy
-designs, symbols of the universe
xi jiang river
-south of china west river
Quing Shandi Mts
.-Divide northern and southern China
-Professional soldiers, served landowners in
extended decline in general business activity
Global economy
-nations dependent on each other for goods and services
great barrier reef
-A coral reef parallel to the coast of Queensland, in NE Australia. 1,250 mile long; east coast
-sparsely populated, arid, inland region of Australia
voyaging canoe
-double hulled; ocean going canoe made by pacific islanders
-In Oceania means ''tiny Islands ;whose main groups are the Mariana Islands, the Caroline Islands, and the Marshall Islands.
subsistence farming
-produce enough food for you and your family
-steep slope, nearly flat plateau on top
penal colony
-place to send prisioners
-in arctic or subarctic regions perennially frozen subsoil.
desert types
-slat flat, sandy, and polar
-methods of solid waste disposal, buries between layers of dirt in low lying ground
ring of fire
-chain of volcanoes that outline the Pacific Rim
-one of the greatest cities of the ancient world
Salt Flat Desert
-area were moisture has evaporated leaving behind any chemical salt
world bank-
An international bank established in 1944 to help member nations give loans when in recession, specialized agency of the United Nations.
- An established way of doing things. Customs are applied to a community or to an individual, learned customs are permanent continuances of a social usage.
- Large area with its own unifying characteristics. Regions can include Physical, cultural, political, and/or economical features.
- The state of the atmosphere with respect to wind, temperature, cloudiness, moisture, pressure, etc.
Appalachian Mountains
- A mountain range in E North America, extending from S Quebec province to N Alabama. Highest peak, Mt. Mitchell, 6684 ft.
- Any object made by human beings, especially with a view to subsequent use.
- One of the main landmasses of the globe, usually reckoned as seven in number (Europe, Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Australia, and Antarctica).
- The behaviors and beliefs characteristic of a particular social, ethnic, or age group: the youth culture; the drug culture. Examples include inherited ideas, beliefs, values, and knowledge.
East Asia
- The countries and land area of the People's Republic of China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Macao, Mongolia, the Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan, and the Russian Federation in Asia.
Education System
- The act or process of imparting or acquiring general knowledge, developing the powers of reasoning and judgment, and generally of preparing oneself or others intellectually for mature life.
Energy (Alternative)
- Energy, as solar, wind, or nuclear energy, that can replace or supplement traditional fossil-fuel sources, as coal, oil and natural gas. .
- The control or governing influence of a nation over a dependent country, territory, or people.
Ganges River Valley
- A river flowing SE from the Himalayas in N India into the Bay of Bengal: sacred to Hindus. 1550 mi.
- A person, especially of northern India, who adheres to Hinduism.
International Date Line
- A theoretical line following approximately the 180th meridian, the regions to the east of which are counted as being one day earlier in their calendar dates than the regions to the west.
- Distance measuring the angular distance north or south of the equator. Lines run east and west..
- If the angular distance of a point's meridian from the Prime Meridian..
Life Expectancy
- The probable number of years remaining in the life of an individual or class of persons determined statistically, affected by such factors as heredity, physical condition, nutrition, and occupation.
Map projection
- A means of representing or a representation of the globe or celestial sphere or part of it on a flat map, using a grid of lines of latitude and longitud
Mineral resource
- Any of a class of substances occurring in nature, usually comprising inorganic substances, as quartz or feldspar, of definite chemical composition and usually of definite crystal structure, but sometimes also including rocks formed by these substances as well as certain natural products of organic origin, as asphalt or coal.
Natural disaster
- Any event or force of nature that has catastrophic consequences, such as avalanche, earthquake, flood, forest fire, hurricane, lightning, tornado, tsunami, and volcanic eruption.
Nuclear Power Plant
- Nuclear power is produced by controlled (i.e., non-explosive) nuclear reactions. Commercial and utility plants currently use nuclear fission reactions to heat water to produce steam, which is then used to generate electricity.
Pacific Rim
- The regions, countries, etc, that lie on the shores of the Pacific Ocean, especially in the context of their developing manufacturing capacity and consumer markets.
- A district, as of a city, marked out for governmental or administrative purposes, or for police protection.
- To keep alive or in existence. To keep up or maintain.
- Is the usage and knowledge of tools, techniques, crafts, systems or methods of organization in order to solve a problem or create an artistic perspective.
- The term assimilation is often used with regard to immigrants and various ethnic groups who have settled in a new land. New customs and attitudes are acquired through contact and communication.
Cumberland Gap
- A pass in the Cumberland Mountains at the junction of the Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee boundaries. 1315 ft. he Cumberland Gap was discovered in 1750 by Dr. Thomas Walker, a Virginia physician and explorer. Long used by Native Americans, the path was widened by a team of loggers led by Daniel Boone, making it accessible to pioneers, who used it to journey into the western frontiers of Kentucky and Tennessee.
Population Density
- Is population divided by total land area.
Economic Alliance
- an agreement or friendship between two or more parties, made in order to advance common goals and to secure common economic interests.
- The Everglades are subtropical wetlands in the southern portion of the U.S. state of Florida, comprising the southern half of a large watershed. The system begins near Orlando with the Kissimmee River, which discharges into the vast but shallow Lake Okeechobee.
Hydroelectric Power
- Electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water.
Infant Mortality Rate
- The number of infant deaths (one year of age or younger) per 1000 live births. Traditionally, the most common cause worldwide was dehydration from diarrhea. However, the spreading information about Oral Re-hydration Solution (a mixture of salts, sugar, and water) to mothers around the world has decreased the rate of children dying from dehydration. Currently, the most common cause is pneumonia.
- Two states that cooperate with each other are said to be interdependent. It can also be defined as the reliance on one another socially, economically, environmentally and politically.
- The Inuit are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Canada, Denmark, Russia and the United States.
- Is a narrow strip of land connecting two larger land areas usually with water forming on either side.
Khyber Pass
- Is a mountain pass that links Pakistan and Afghanistan. The Pass was an integral part of the ancient Silk Road and throughout history, it has been an important trade route between Central Asia and South Asia and a strategic military location.
- Is a natural or artificial slope or wall to regulate water levels. It is usually earthen and often parallel to the course of a river or the coast.
Strip Mining
- Is the practice of mining a seam of mineral by first removing a long strip of overlying soil and rock.
Chernobyl Nuclear Accident
- Was a well-known nuclear accident of catastrophic proportions that occurred on 26 April 1986, at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine. Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus have been burdened with the continuing and substantial decontamination and health care costs of the Chernobyl accident. Fifty deaths, all among the reactor staff and emergency workers, are directly attributed to the accident. It is estimated that there may ultimately be a total of 4,000 deaths attributable to the accident, due to increased cancer risk.
Command Economy
- It is an economic system in which the central government controls industry such that it makes major decisions regarding the production and distribution of goods and services.
Comparative Advantage
- Refers to the ability of a party (an individual, a firm, or a country) to produce a particular good or service at a lower opportunity cost than another party. It is the ability to produce a product with the highest efficiency given all the other products that could be produced.
- Is the tendency to believe that one's ethnic or cultural group is centrally important, and that all other groups are measured in relation to one's own. The ethnocentric individual will judge other groups relative to his or her own particular ethnic group or culture, especially with concern to language, behavior, customs, and religion.
Gross Domestic Product
- The market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period of time.
Gross National Product
- Is the market value of all products and services produced in one year by labor and property supplied by the residents of a country. Unlike Gross Domestic Product (GDP), which defines production based on the geographical location of production, GNP allocates production based on ownership.
Market Economy
- Is an economy based on the power of division of labor in which the prices of goods and services are determined in a free price system set by supply and demand.
Push Factors
- Involves a force which acts to drive people away from a place.
Push Factors
- Is what draws them to a new location.
Zoning regulation
- Is a device of land use planning used by local governments in most developed countries. The word is derived from the practice of designating permitted uses of land based on mapped zones which separate one set of land uses from another. Zoning may be use-based (regulating the uses to which land may be put), or it may regulate building height, lot coverage, and similar characteristics, or some combination of these.
latitude lines
-Imaginary lines running horizontally around the globe. Also called parallels, latitude lines are equidistant from each other. Each degree of latitude is about 69 miles (110 km) apart. Zero degrees (0°) latitude is the equator, the widest circumference of the globe. Latitude is measured from 0° to 90° north and 0° to 90° south—90° north is the North Pole and 90° south is the South Pole.
longitude lines
-Imaginary lines, also called meridians, running vertically around the globe. Unlike latitude lines, longitude lines are not parallel. Meridians meet at the poles and are widest apart at the equator. Zero degrees longitude (0°) is called the prime meridian. The degrees of longitude run 180° east and 180° west from the prime meridian.
-Latitude and longitude lines form an imaginary grid over the Earth's surface. By combining longitude and latitude measurements, any location on earth can be determined. The units of measurement for geographic coordinates are degrees (°), minutes ('), and seconds ("). Like a circle, the Earth has 360 degrees. Each degree is divided into 60 minutes, which in turn is divided into 60 seconds. Latitude and longitude coordinates also include cardinal directions: north or south of the equator for latitude, and east or west of the prime meridian for longitude. The geographic coordinates of New York City, for example, are 40° N, 74° W, meaning that it is located 40 degrees north latitude and 74 degrees west longitude. Using minutes and seconds as well as degrees, the coordinates for New York would be 40°42'51" N, 74°0'23" W. (Latitude is always listed first.) A less common format for listing coordinates is in decimal degrees. The Tropic of Cancer, for example, can be expressed in degrees and minutes (23°30' N) or in decimal degrees (23.5° N).
-A hemisphere is half the Earth's surface. The four hemispheres are the Northern and Southern hemispheres, divided by the equator (0° latitude), and the Eastern and Western hemispheres, divided by the prime meridian (0° longitude) and the International Date Line (180°).
-Zero degrees latitude. The Sun is directly overhead the equator at noon on the two equinoxes (March and Sept. 20 or 21). The equator divides the globe into the Northern and Southern hemispheres. The equator appears halfway between the North and South poles, at the widest circumference of the globe. It is 24,901.55 miles (40,075.16 km) long.
prime meridian
-Zero degrees longitude (0°). The prime meridian runs through the Royal Greenwich Observatory in Greenwich, England (the location was established in 1884 by international agreement). The prime meridian divides the globe into the Western and Eastern hemispheres. The Earth's time zones are measured from the prime meridian. The time at 0° is called Universal Time (UT) or Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). With the Greenwich meridian as the starting point, each 15° east and west marks a new time zone. The 24 time zones extend east and west around the globe for 180° to the International Date Line. When it is noon along the prime meridian, it is midnight along the International Date Line.
International Date Line
-Located at 180° longitude (180° E and 180° W are the same meridian). Regions to the east of the International Date Line are counted as being one calendar day earlier than the regions to the west. Although the International Date Line generally follows the 180° meridian (most of which lies in the Pacific Ocean), it does diverge in places. Since 180° runs through several countries, it would divide those countries not simply into two different time zones, but into two different calendar days. To avoid such unnecessary confusion, the date line dips and bends around countries to permit them to share the same time.
Tropic of Cancer
-A line of latitude located at 23°30' north of the equator. The Sun is directly overhead the Tropic of Cancer on the summer solstice in the Northern Hemisphere (June 20 or 21). It marks the northernmost point of the tropics, which falls between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.
Tropic of Capricorn
-A line of latitude located at 23°30' south. The Sun is directly overhead the Tropic of Capricorn on the summer solstice in the Southern Hemisphere (Dec. 20 or 21). It marks the southernmost point of the tropics.
Arctic Circle
-A line of latitude located at 66°30' north, delineating the Northern Frigid Zone of the Earth.
Antarctic Circle
-A line of latitude located at 66°30' south, delineating the Southern Frigid Zone of the Earth.
-The most accurate map of the Earth, duplicating its spherical shape and relative size.
Arctic Tundra
-The Arctic tundra is a cold, vast, treeless area of low, swampy plains in the far north around the Arctic Ocean. This is the earth's coldest biome
Coniferous Forest
-The coniferous forest biome is south of the Arctic tundra. It stretches from Alaska straight across North America to the Atlantic Ocean and across Eurasia. The largest stretch of coniferous forest in the world, circling the earth in the Northern Hemisphere, is called the "taiga." It supplies the bulk of the world's commercial softwood timber, which is used to make paper.
Deciduous Forest
-This biome is in the mild temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere. Major regions are found in eastern North America, Europe, and eastern Asia.
-Grasslands are places with hot, dry climates that are perfect for growing food. They are known throughout the world by different names. In the U.S. they are called prairies and extend from the Midwest to the Rocky Mountains. In South Africa, grasslands are called the veld. Hot, tropical grasslands called savannas are found in South America and Africa. In Eurasia, temperate zone grasslands are called steppes; in South America, pampas.
-Mountains exist on all the continents of the earth. Many of the world's mountains lie in two great belts. The Circum-Pacific chain, often called the Ring of Fire, runs from the west coast of the Americas through New Zealand and Australia and up through the Philippines to Japan. The other major belt, called the Alpine-Himalayan, or Tethyan, system, stretches from the Pyrenees in Spain and France through the Alps and on to the Himalayas before ending in Indonesia.
-Tropical rainforests are found in Asia, Africa, South America, Central America, and on many of the Pacific islands. They are often found along the equator. Almost half of the world's tropical rainforests are in the South American country Brazil.
-A biome is a large ecosystem where plants, animals, insects, and people live in a certain type of climate