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intramuscular sites

ventrogluteal, vastus lateralis, deltoid

subcutaneous sites

lower abdomen, lower back, anterior thigh, back of arm, scapula


5-15 degree angle, should be able to see needle through skin


-drops must be room temperature to prevent vertigo
-pull auricle back and up to straighten ear
-lay 2-3 minutes after


- insert drops into center of conjunctival sac
- avoid touching eye
- apply gentle pressure to nasolacrimal duct


place solid medication against mucous membrane of cheek until it dissolves

z track method

pulling skin back while giving an IM; once skin is release the opening closes keeping the medication in the muscle

anaphylactic reaction

mild to sever allergic reaction

high alert drugs

potassium chloride, heparin, insulin, chemotherapy drugs

10 rights

right: medication, dose, time, route, client, documentation, client education, refuse, assessment, evaluation


partial or total opening of a surgical wound


wound opens up and internal organs protrude through

stage 1 ulcer

intact skin with nonblanchable redness; pain

stage 2 ulcer

partial-thickness skin loss involving epidermis, dermis or both; pain

stage 3 ulcer

full-thickness tissue loss with visible adipose tissue; no pain

stage 4 ulcer

full-thickness tissue loss with exposed bone, muscle or tendon


clear, sticky, watery


RBC, thick red; bleeding


thin, pink tinge


tan, yellow, brown, thick

primary intention healing

well-approximated, redness, swelling pain; minimal or not tissue loss and little risk for infection; minimal scarring

secondary intention healing

greater risk for infection; extensive tissue loss, edges can't be closed, repair time longer, scarring greater; pressure ulcers, burns

tertiary intention healing

traumatic wounds, initially left open for several days; edema, infection or exudate resolves

ss of infection

fever, chills, achiness, malaise, review lab work


people, plants, animals, environment

portal of exit

skin, tears, respiratory tract, GI tract, urinary tract, blood

portal of entry

respiratory tract, GI, GU, parenteral, transplacental, conjunctiva

inflammation signs

pain, swelling, redness, heat, impaired function


trasmitted by the air as droplet nuclei


serious illnesses transmitted by particles


serious illnesses trasmitted by contact with client


used in administration of medication, enemas, tube feedings, daily hygiene


used in dressing changes, catheterizations, surgical procedures

therapeutic effect

expected, predictable, desirable results

side effect

unintended, secondary effect, predictable

adverse effect

severe response to a medication, unintended, undesirable

idiosyncratic reaction

over or under-reaction to a medication

toxic effect

medication accumulates in the blood


post-operative infection


can occur when part of the client's flora becomes altered and an overgrowth results

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