AP Human Geo Unit2

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Terms in this set (...)

Arithmetic population density
Total people to total land
Physiologic population density
Total population to total farm land
Population distribution
Locations where individuals or groups live (dot maps)
Agricultural density
Number of farmers to amount of farm land
Agricultural revolution
8000BC first domestication of animals and plants. No longer hunters/gatherers
Carrying capacity
Ability of land to sustain amount of people
Chain migration
When immigrants move and others of the same background move there too
Census
Record of population
Crude birth rate (CBR)
Total live births per 1000 people alive in a society
Crude death rate (CDR)
Total deaths per 1000 people in a society
Demographic transition
A similar change process that multiple countries share
Demographic equation
Global births - global deaths = population growth rate
Demography
Study of population characteristics
Dependency ratio
Number of people too old/young to work and care for themselves compared to those who are in their active years
Distance decay
The inability of trends to spread to populations far from their current location
Doubling time
The years needed to double population assumes constant natural increase rate
Ecumene
Portion of earth surface lived on by humans/ amount of habitable land on earth
Emigrants
People leaving a country/region
Epidemiology
Medical science branch that deals with distribution and control of epidemics
Forced migrants
People who are forced out of their homes for political or environmental reasons
Immigrants
People coming into a country/region
Industrial revolution
Mid 1700s machinery improved production and transportation
Infant mortality rate (IMR)
Yearly infant deaths under 1 years of age compared to live births
Intercontinental migration
Migration across continents/oceans
Life expectancy
Average years a newborn is expected to live at current mortality levels
Linear growth
Even growth across unit of time (10 people every year)
Medical revolution
Medical technology invented in Europe and North America diffused to less developed countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America
Migration
Movement of people
Natural increase rate (NIR)
Percentage by which population grows yearly (CBR - CDR)
Net migration
Immigrants - emigrants
Overpopulation
When population exceeds environment's capacity to support it
Pandemic
A disease that occurs over a wide area and affects a high amount of the population
Physiological density
Number of people supported by a unit of arable land
Place utility
Incentives are offered to attract people to/from land
Population pyramid
A bar graph showing countries' population by gender and age
Sex ratio + population projection
Population projection
The use of demographic data to determine future population
Pull factor
A positive trait to entice people to move TO a place
Push factor
A negative trait to repel people FROM a place
Refugees
People forced to flee their homelands to seek safety in a different country
Face death or persecution in their homeland
Sex ratio
Number of males per females
Total fertility rate
Number of children a woman can have throughout her childbearing years
Zero population growth
When a country's CBR declines to the point that it reaches the CDR and the NIR approaches zero
Thomas Malthus
Late 1700s : "invented" the concept of overpopulation aka pop growth > food production --> mass starvation
"An Essay on the Principles of Population"
Most population growth
Less developed countries
Inverted population pyramid
Old people dominated society
Large based population pyramid
Kid dominated society
3 primary push/pull factors
Economic: career based relocation
Political
Environmental(voluntary): move to better climate
Population explosion
Rapid population growth (past 100 years)
Uninhabited areas
Too hot, too cold, too wet, too dry, too hilly
People only live in a small percentage of the planet
5 main distribution areas
East Asia: China, South Korea, North Korea, Japan: mountain-y but good climate } 25% of the population
South Asia: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh: within next 50 years, India will pass China in population
Southeast Asia: Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia
Western & Central Europe: London, Moscow, Paris } urbanized
Northeast US and Canada: Boston, DC; Toronto, Ottawa, Montreal
High population densities conductive for...
Economic growth, agricultural access
Demographic transition model
1-Hunting and Gathering: negative population growth
2-Agricultural: population explosion
3-Tertiary: zero population growth
4-Industrial: birth and death rates drop
3-4: women don't have as many kids so they can work
Work force
People 15-64 years old
All others: dependency ratio
High infant mortality rates
Social/developmental problems
Less developed countries
High CBR} no birth control, low income, religious intolerance, poor transportation
Gender gap
Men>women
Ex: China one child policy lowered population growth but widened gender gap
Causes for population increase
Medical advances, quantity/quality of food, ethnic/religious issues; banned birth control,
economic issues::agricultural economy = + population growth // industrial economy = - population growth (minimal)
Causes for population decrease
Natural disasters; famine/plague, war/political turmoil, bad economy/no jobs = less kids
Epidemiological transition stages ((1))
1-- infectious/parasitic disease, accidents/attacks by humans/animals: Malthus called them "natural checks" on population growth
Epidemiological transition stages ((2))
Receding of pandemics
Epidemiological transition stages ((3))
Degenerative/human-created diseases, decrease in death last due to disease and increase in deaths due to aging
Epidemiological transition stages ((4))
Stage of degenerative disease, cardiovascular/cancer
Olshansky and Ault
Epidemiological transition stages ((5))
Due to evolution/poverty/improved travel: reemergence stage where thought to be controlled diseases would return
Olshansky and Ault
Bangledesh
152 million
North America Megalopolis
Huge urban agglomerations; Boston, NYC, Philadelphia, Baltimore, DC } 20+% of US population
Stationary population level (SPL)
The level at which a national population ceases to grow
Composition
Age, sex, marital status, education, etc
Age and sex are key indicators of composition
Infectious diseases
65% of all diseases vectored: parasite/ pathogen, nonvectored: cancer/ no carrier needed, degenerative: chronic/genetic-- old populations affected
Expansive population policies
Encourage large families and raise the rate of NIR
Eugenic population policies
Favor one racial/ cultural sector of population over others
Restrictive population policy
Limitations: Sweden, contradictions: Roman Catholic Doctrine
Ex. China one child policy
Cyclic movement
Commuting, seasonal movement, nomadism
Periodic movement
Longer time away: migrant labor, transhumance was, college, military
Migration movement
Permanent relocation, international/transnational, immigration/emigration
Island of development
Port cities = economic development within larger undeveloped regions
Millions left europe
US(1.8 mil)
Canada(1.1 mil)
Australia(1 mil)
Israel(750,000)
Argentina(750,000)
Brazil(500,000)
Venezuela(500,000)
Others
Internal migration/ national migration
Movement within country
Russification
Assimilate all people in soviet territory into the Russian culture
Guest workers/ labor migrants
Move to work/ work to move } periodic migration } long hours, low pay
UN High Commissioner on Refugees (UNHCR)
83% of all refugees flee to a country in the same region as their home country
1970= 2.9 mil were refugees
1980= 8 mil were refugees
Transhumanance
Specialized movement system of farming where ranchers move livestock according to seasons
Intervening opportunity
Presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly lessens the attractiveness of farther away site
Kinship links
Types of push/pull factors that influence a migrant's decision to go where family and friends found success
Asylum
Shelter/protection for refugees
Repatriation
A refugee or group of refugees returning to their home country usually with the assistance of government or nongovernment organization
Genocide
Deliberate killing of tons of people because of ethnicity
Immigration laws
Laws/regulations of a state designed specifically to control immigration into that state
Quotas
Established limits by governments on a number of immigrants who can enter a country yearly
Selective
Immigration process to control immigration in which individuals with certain backgrounds can enter
Ravenstein
Laws of migration:
1) migration flow = countermigration flow
2) majority of migrants move a short distance
3) migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big cities
4)urban residents are less migratory than rural
5) families are less likely to make international moves than young adults
Gravity model
A mathematical prediction of the interaction being a function of population size of respective places/distance between them
Greatest human migration
Europe --> America
Most long distance migrants are...
Male
Migration in other places
Africa: severely affected by dislocation
South Asia: third in refugee numbers
Europe: 1900s collapse of Yugoslavia created largest refugee crisis since WWII
Columbia: IDR of 3.4-4.9
Southeast Asia: refugee issues change quickly
Countermigration
Governments detain migrants who enter/ attempt to enter countries illegally and return them
Step migration
Migration streams consist of a series of stages
Legal restrictions
Ex: oriental exclusion acts: U.S. Made immigration laws to keep Chinese out
Greater after 9/11