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endospores survive a variety of harsh conditions in part because of the presence of _____.

dipicolinic acid

which of the following statements concerning osmosis is FALSE?
a. during osmosis, water crosses to the side of the membrane with a lower solute concentration.
b. cells placed in a hypotonic solutions will gain water.
c. osmosis requires a selectively permeable membrane.
d. osmosis stops when the system reaches equilibrium.
e. crenation results when cells are placed in hypertonic solution.


which of the following statements concerning endosymbiotic theory is FALSE?
a. the endosymbiotic theory is not universally accepted.
b. mitochondria ad chloroplasts can divide independently of the cell.
c. the cristae of mitochondria evolved from the cytoplasmic membrane of prokaryotes.
d. eukaryotees were formed from the union of small anaerobic cells by larger aerobic cells.
e. mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA and ribosomes.


which of the follwoing is NOT a function of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton?
a. performs endocytosis
b. packages cellular secretion
c. anchors organelles.
d. aids in contraction of the cell
e. gives shape to the cell


bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma are distinguished from other bacterial cells by _____.

the absence of a cell wall.

lipid-soluble molecules would be expected to cross the cytoplasmic membrane by which of the following processes?
a. facilitated diffusion
b. active transport
c. diffusion
d. grop translocation
e. osmosis


lipid A is also known as___.


bacterial cell walls that are resistant to drying contain______.


using a microscope, you observe an amoeba moving toward a food source. this is an example of _____.


which of the following is NOT associated with the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell?
a. cristae
b. nucleolus
c. nucleoplasm
e. chromatin


Which of the following molecules would be expected to cross the cytoplasmic membrane rapidly and without the use of transport proteins?
a. ions
b. small hydrophobic molecules
c. both ions and hydrophilic molecules
d. large molecules
e.small hydrophilic molecules


When cells are placed in a hypertonic solution, they lose water and shrivel. This process is called_____.


The accumulation of glucose 6-phosphate inside a bacterial cell via phosphorylation of glucose is an example of______.

grop translocation

Bacterial pili can be described as____.

composed of pilin

Which of the following statements concerning the characteristics of life is FALSE?

a. organisms may not exhibit all of the characteristics of life at all times.

b. living things store metabolic energy in the form of chemicals such as ATP.

c. viruses have some, but not all, of the characteristics of living things.

d. reproduction is defined as an increase in the size of an organism.

e. reproduction can occur asexually or sexually in living things.


The glycocalyx of a eukaryotic cell performs all of the following functions EXCEPT

a. cellular recognition and communication.
b. anchoring cells to each other.
c. protection against dehydration.
d. strengthening the cell surface.
e. transfer of genetic material between cells.


Which of the following is paired incorrectly?

a. plants: cellulose cell wall
b. algae: glycocalyx present
c. bacteria: peptidoglycan cell wall
d. archaea: polysaccharide cell wall
e. fungi: cellulose, chitin, and/or glucomannan cell wall


Short, hairlike structures used only by eukaryotic cells for movement are called____.


Which of the following chemical substances contributes to the unique characteristics of acid-fast bacteria?

b. endotoxin
c. lipoteichoic acid
d. mycolic acid
e. N-acetylglucosamine


Which of the following statements concerning pili is FALSE?

a. Not all bacteria have pili.
b. Pili are longer than fimbriae and flagella.
c. Pili facilitate the transfer of DNA among bacterial cells.
d. Pili are long, hollow tubules.
e. A bacterial cell will usually have only one or two pili.


One lipid found in eukaryotes but not in prokaryotes is_______.


Which of the following is NOT a component of bacterial cell walls?

a. tubulin
b. mycolic acid
c. tetrapeptide
d. peptidoglycan
e. lipoteichoic acids


Which of the following is unique to archaea?

a. pili
b. hami
c. peptidoglycan
d. LPS
e. fimbriae


Which of the following statements about the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is correct?

a. The ER is a lipid storage organelle.
b. The smooth ER is a site of ATP synthesis.
c. The ER is a transport system within the cytoplasm.
d. The smooth ER has ribosomes associated with it.
e. The rough ER is the site of lipid synthesis.


Which of the following bacterial cell structures plays an important role in the creation of biofilms?

a. fimbriae
b. glycocalyces
c. flagella
d. both fimbriae and glycocalyces
e. pili


Which of the following processes requires a carrier protein?

a. facilitated diffusion
b. active transport
c. both facilitated diffusion and active transport
d. diffusion
e. endocytosis


Which of the following statements concerning endocytosis and exocytosis is correct?

a. Phagocytosis is a type of endocytosis in which liquids are brought into the cell.
b. Endocytosis is a form of passive transport, whereas exocytosis is a form of active transport.
c. Endocytosis produces a structure called a food vesicle.
d. Waste products and secretions are exported from the cell during endocytosis.
e. These processes occur in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.


Which of the following is NOT a component of bacterial flagella?

a. flagellin
b. hook
c. tubulin
d. basal body
e. filament


A bacterial cell moving toward light would be an example of_____.

positive photoaxis

Which of the following organelles is responsible for producing most of the ATP in a eukaryotic cell?

a. smooth endoplasmic reticulum
b. nucleus
c. Golgi body
d. ysosome
e. mitochondrion


Which of the following statements concerning prokaryotic flagella is FALSE?

a. Prokaryotic flagella are anchored to the cell wall by means of the basal body.
b. Prokaryotic flagella can rotate 360 degrees.
c. Treponema is an example of a bacterium that has an endoflagellum.
d. Prokaryotic flagella are composed of tubulin.
e. A "run" results from counterclockwise movement of the flagellum.


Which of the following molecules would be expected to cross the cytoplasmic membrane rapidly and without the use of transport proteins?

a. small hydrophobic molecules
b. small hydrophilic molecules
c. large molecules
d. ions
e. both ions and hydrophilic molecules


Which of the following statements concerning centrioles is FALSE?

a. Centrioles are found in a region of the cell called the centrosome.
b. Centrioles are found in all organisms except prokaryotes.
c. Centrioles are composed of microtubules.
d. The structure of centrioles is similar to that of eukaryotic flagella and cilia.
e. Centrioles are believed to play a role in cellular processes such as mitosis and cytokinesis.


Chloroplasts differ from mitochondria in having_____.

light-harvesting pigments

ATP is expended in which of the following processes?

a. group translocation
b. both active transport and group translocation
c. active transport
d. facilitated diffusion
e. diffusion


Which of the following is classified as a membranous organelle of eukaryotic cells?

a. cytoskeleton
b. both ribosomes and centrioles
c. endoplasmic reticulum
d. centriole
e. ribosome


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