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Terms in this set (24)

ARDS: characterized by sever dyspnea of rapid onset, hypoxemia, and pulmonary infiltrates.
ALI: is less severe but can turn into ARDS
Both can result from aspiration of gastric contents, major trauma, sepsis secondary to pulmonary or nonpulmonary infections, acute pancreatitis, hematologic disorders, metabolic events, and reactions to drugs and toxins.
Include diffuse epithelial cell injury with increased permeability of the alveolar-capillary membrane. leads to accumulation of fluid surfactant inactivation, and formation of a hyaline membrane that is fibrous and impervious to gas exchange. Clinical features:
rapid onset (12-18 hours) of initiating event of respiratory distress, increase in respiratory rate, and signs of respiratory failure. Chest radiography is used to show diffusion of bilateral infiltrates of the lung tissue. Marked hypoxemia occurs that is refractory to treatment with supplemental oxygen therapy. many people have a systemic response that results in multiple organ failure, particularly of the renal, gi, cv, and cns.
treatment: supply oxygen to vital organs and provide supportive care until the condition causing the pathologic process has been reversed and the lungs have had a chance to heal. high concentrations of oxygen may be required to correct the hypoxemia. postive end-expiratory pressure breathing may be used. Smaller tidal volumes (6mL/kg) may be used to reduce barotrauma secondary to lower plateau pressures and optimal positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) therapy prevents damage associated with the collapse and reinflation of alveoli.