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Terms in this set (50)
Related to bones
Functions of Skeleton
Support, Protection, Movement, Electrolyte balance, Acid-Base balance, Blood formation
Bones form using...
metals (Calcium, Magnesium)
Hardening process of osseous tissue through the deposition of calcium phosphate and other minerals.
Cranial bones, scapula, sternum, ribs, and hip bones
Bones of the limbs and hands/feet (
wrists and ankles)
Carpal and tarsal and patella.
Vertebrae, middle-ear bones
Also known as marrow cavity, contains bone marrow.
Shaft of bone. (Leverage)
Enlarged head of bone. (strength joint/provide muscle attachments) Proximal and Distal.
Type of hyaline cartilage found at the articulation (joint) of bones.
In between Epiphysis and Diaphysis.
Sheath of outer fibrous collagen and inner osteogenic layer of bone forming cells.
Anchors the periosteum to the bone matrix.
Thin layer of reticular CT lining internal marrow cavity. Also covers honeycomb surfaces of spongy bones and lines the canal system.
Hyaline cartilage separating the marrow spaces in children. Where the bones grow in length. Is just an /epiphyseal line/ in adults.
Spongy bone layer in flat bone.
Basic unit of compact bone
holes in ring
Perforating (Volkmann) canals
Spicules of spongy bone
Trabeculae of spongy bone
soft tissue that occupies marrow cavity of long bones, spaces amid trabeculae of spongy bone, and larger central canals.
Most red marrow in axial skeleton and proximal heads of humerus and femur. Most yellow marrow in long bones of limbs
Red Bone Marrow
Produces blood cells.
Yellow Bone Marrow
Red marrow of bones in limbs turns into yellow bone marrow in adults.
Formation of bone through either intramembranous or endochondral.
Mineral crystals of bone made up of calcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, calcium fluoride, calcium hydroxide and citrate.
inorganic matter that makes up 85% of the matrix of osseous tissue
Produces flat bones of skill and most of the clavicle and
maintains long bones
. (Within membrane)
Stages of Intramembranous Ossification
1) Mesenchyme condenses and becomes
2) Calcification of osteoid tissue causes osteoblast to become trapped, becoming
3) Honeycomb of spongy bone develops along with hard periosteum surface.
4) Osteoblast under periosteum fill in space creating later of compact bone, leaving spongy bone in the center.
Produces bones using prexisting model of hyaline cartilage (
denotes the role of cartilage)
Stages of Endochondral Ossification
1) Early Cartilage model
2) Formation of primary ossification center, bony collar, and periosteum
3) Vascular invasion, formation of primary marrow cavity, 2nd ossification center
4) Bone at birth. Enlarged primary marrow cavity and 2nd marrow cavity in one epiphysis
4) Bone of child. Epiphyseal plate at distal end.
5) Adult bone
Bones grow in ____ first, then in ____.
length (interstitial growth), width (appositional growth)
Zone of reserve cartilage
1) Furthest from Marrow cavity. Typical hyaline cartilage with resting chondrocytes.
Zone of cell proliferation
2) Chondrocytes multiply and arrange selves in longitudinal columns of flattened lacunae
Zone of cell hypertrophy
3) Chondrocytes cease to multiply and begin to hypertrophy (enlarge). Walls of matrix between lacunae become very thin.
Zone of Calcification
Minerals are deposited in the matrix between the columns of lacunae and calcify the cartilage for temporary support.
Zone of bone deposition
Walls of lacunae break down within each column and the chondrocytes die, converting them into longitudinal channels which is immediate invaded by blood vessels and marrow from the marrow cavity. Osteoblast line up along the walls and begin depositing concentric lamellae of matrix, while osteoclasts dissolve the temporarily calcified cartilage.
Value of 4 PO's per Ca in order to make hydroxyapatite crystals.
Calcified mass in otherwise soft organ such as lungs
"hardening of the arteries" due to calcification of arterial walls.
Process of dissolving bone
Digestive enzyme secreted by osteoclast to digest collagen of the bone matrix.
Stem cell gives rise to other bone cells
Bone forming cells.
Secrete /osteocalcin/ which stimulate insulin secretion by the pancreas, increases insulin sensitivity in adipocytes, and limits growth of adipose tissue.
Former/mature Osteoblasts trapped in matrix they deposited. Reside in lacunae. Contribute to homeostatic maintenance of bone and senses strain.
Bone dissolving cells.
Actually develop from bone marrow stem cells, not osteogenic cells.
, comb shape. /Ruffle border/ is side the faces bone surface. Reside in /Resorption bays/.
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