Music History Midterm Songs
Terms in this set (12)
Hildegard of Bingen - Columba Aspexit
Medieval Period. St. Hildegard(1098-1179). 1st great woman composer. Plainchant melodies to go with poems. She wrote for special services in Western Germany, also wrote books. This piece was in honor of St. Maximus. It was part of the "sequence" genre (more elaborate melody than antiphon). Series of short tunes sung twice (AA'BB'CC') The solo = A. The choir = A'. There was no measure or meter. Sung in the mixolydian scale in the beginning of the melody. It grows more melismatic. Has an underlying instrumental drone. Feeling of serene yet intense spirituality.
Perotin - Alleluia Diffusa est gratia
Medieval Period. 1200. Organum (two melodies dancing around a single melody - earliest type of polyphony). Organa composed for services devoted to the Virgin Mary. Monophonic chant for the mass. The opening "Alleluia" section is the most important part (repeats twice using melismas). During the organum the voices begin with a strange static harmony that intertwines a quick triple time rhythm. Underneath a lower voice, sing the chant in a stiff regular rhythm. Sometimes it slows to a drone variation of plainchant
Machaut - Dame de qui toute ma joie vient
Late Medieval Period. 1300-1377. Chanson. Wrote Secular Polyphony. Composed isorhythmic motets. Start of love songs with are nova. No trace of gregorian chants. 4 voices, nominative polyphony (top line meant to be sung, other 3 could've been sung or played instrumentally). Long - each stanza takes two minutes. AA'B arrangement (A and A' are only slightly different) - one letter stands for a whole section. Each stanza comes to a clear stop at a strong cadence. Lively flowing set of intertwining melodies. Hard to follow lyrics because of the melismas. Complex polyphony. The music does not reflect the poems emotions - neutral
Josquin - Pange Lingua
Early Renaissance. 1510. 1st master of high renaissance style. Born in north France (1450-1521). Pioneered new expressive genres (16th century chanson and motets). Famous for technical prowess and expressive innovations. Derived this from a hymn, designed for Corpus Christi, the communion part of a mass. 4 part mass with 4 melodic lines. Two sections 1) KYRIE-simple monophony, prayer with 3 subsections, wrote a point of imitation (imitative polyphony with a single melodic motive), basis of the mass, uses melismas, beautiful paraphrase). 2)GLORIA-4 remaining sections of the mass, introduces new points of imitation, occasional homophony, polyphony vs. homophony,gives drama to the communal worship, phrygian mode. [has the same lyrics as palestrina's mass]
Palestrina- Pope Marcellus Mass
1557. Renaissance. Singer/choirmaster in Romes most famous churches. Lived during counter reformation (1525-1594). Wrote popular secular compositions in his youth but later apologized for it and wrote 100+ masses. The church controlled music very carefully. This mass was supposed to convince the Pope that composers of complicated polyphony could still set sacred text to be clearly understood/more relatable. Serenity/careful control of music style. In comparison to Josquin- it utilizes more homophony (last line uses polyphony), larger richer choir (6 vocal parts instead of 4), alternates a semi choir, created a spiritual aura with rich shifting tone colors. Careful to be clear.
Thomas Weekles - As Vetmas ...
1575-1623. Madrigal. Cathedral Organist/choirmaster (later thought of as a drunkard). Start of modern music. Best composer of english madrigals. Renaissance Period.This piece had exuberant brightness, simple rhythms, clear harmonies, melodic motives, lively declaimed, more upbeat than church music, natural rhythms. WORD PAINTING. About the world around him at the time - told a story (Queen Elizabeth). Music becomes more relatable/emotional. Utilized puns.
Henry Purcell - Dido
English Opera. 1689. Baroque Period. Composed for the London Theatre. 1 hour opera for a girls school. Contains no virtuoso singing roles. Dramatic power. Only great English opera. Source was Aeneid - about the glory of Rome (the city's foundation. story of a prince). Dido kills herself because she loves Aenas and he leaves. Utilizes Recitative and Aria. RECITATIVE - long, gradual descent (melody). ARIA-slow, ground bass, repeated half steps, violent string orchestra, words repeated a number of times, converys an emotional message. CHORUS- slow dance with sorrowful cupids, ends the opera. The general style is that of a madrigal (imitative polyphony, homophony and word painting)
Vivaldi - Concerto G, 1st mvt
1712-1713. Baroque Period. [actually in g flat because instruments were tuned slightly lower to that of modern times]. Instrumental music. Ritornello form. Vivaldi was a venetian composer, champion of the concerto (wrote hundreds. Solo violin opus 4 - played expressively. Soloist versus orchestra (strings & continuo). Triple meter - spirited but not too fast. Opening ritornello = 3 short parts (abc) ends with a solid cadence. Episode one is a solo that speeds up and goes from high strings to low. Rit 2 repeats C. Ep 2 is a longer solo with subsections. Rit 3 is derivatives of A & C. Ep 3 is a more expressive solo. Rit 4 feels more free with some B. Another more free solo. And then ends with Rit 5 that is strictly B and C. (becomes more and more free and then gets pulled together)
Handel- Julis Caesar
Baroque Opera Seria. German, wrote form Hamburg opera company, wrote Italian operas. Drew on Roman History. Sextus was supposed to be a role for a castrato. Starts with a ritornello to establish the mood. In de capo form, ABA. Uses coloratura to explode angrily on certain key words. Ends with a cadenza (to show off virtuoso breath control) and then a final cadence
JS Bach - Brandenburg Concerto 1st MVT
Baroque. 1721. Concerto grosso (several soloists plus orchestra) 1 of 6 works. Soloists versus orchestra. Solo flute, violin, and harpsichord. Basic baroque orchestra. Solo violin leads orchestra in ritornello. Opens with a loud ritornello. Typical baroque melody. Fast, notes moving as quickly as possible. ABC. Ends with a solid cadence. Solos use imitative polyphony. Every so often Orchestra breaks in with a ritornello. Different from vivaldi because it was longer and has richer counterpoints and harmony. Minor mode. Improvised cadenza at end by the harpsichord. Harmonic tension. ends with a whole ritornello. Bright and emphatic
Bach - Prelude/Fuge in C major
Baroque. Greatest master of the huge. Tried every technique. Pismo. Wide range/expressive variety. Explores many textures, occupies itself. Systematic/technical. Upward moving arpeggio (chord is broken so pitches are played quickly in sequence rather than all at once). Rich array of chords. Harmonic journey. Subject introduced with spacious exposition (moves up the scale). Stretto follows. Order underlies it. Strong Cadence at midpoint on new key.
Mozart - Symphony 40 in G 1st mvt
Classical Period. Most famous for Mozart. Sharp contrast in clear demarcations. SYNADAFORM. Dark/uneasy mood (suggests a struggle). Expressive themes achieved through setting. strict melody. Exposition - 1st theme played twice
2nd theme in major, divided up between strings and woodwinds
repeated with reversed instrumental order
2nd appearance of 2nd theme has no cadence
Development - more dramatic chords. Fragmented theme. Piano.
Coda - first theme again