H446-1: Unit 1.1 - The Characteristics of Contemporary Processors, Input, Output and Storage Devices
OCR H446-1 Computer Science
Terms in this set (89)
Central Processing Unit
A silicon chip (microprocessor) located on the motherboard that executes instructions to process data into information; the brain of the computer; also known as the processor.
A register in a computer processor that contains the address (location) of the instruction being executed at the current time.
Part of a CPU holds the result of an operation
Memory Address Register
Contains address of next location to be accessed in memory. May be the address of the next instruction copied from PC OR Address of next data item to be used copied from address part of instruction held in CIR.
Memory Data Register
Contains the contents of the address specified in the MAR / contains data currently being used by the processor. The contents may be an instruction (to be passed to the CIR) or data to be used with an instruction or data to be copied into an address.
Current Instruction Register
A register in the CPU that holds the actual instruction to be executed.
Manages how instructions are executed, as well as controlling the fetch-decode-execute cycle.
The First Processor Architecture
More Recent Processor Architecture
Graphics Processing Unit
A microprocessor dedicated to rendering and displaying graphics on personal computers, workstations, and videogame consoles.
Random Access Memory
Primary storage which is fast, relatively expensive, and volatile.
Read Only Memory
Memory read at high speed but not capable of being changed by program instructions.
Usually measured in MHz (megahertz, or millions of pulses per second) or GHz (gigahertz, or billions of pulses per second)
Processing Units. Processing performance is affected by the number of processing paths called?
A component that stores data so future requests for that data can be served faster
A technology that allows a processor to begin executing an instruction before completing the previous instruction.
The capacity of a CPU or CPU core to begin processing a new instruction as soon as the previous instruction completes the first stage of the machine cycle
Single Instruction, Single Data
Multiple Instruction, Single Data
Single Instruction, Multiple Data
Multiple Instruction, Multiple Data
Parallel Processing System
The processing of program instructions by dividing them among multiple processors with the objective of running a program in less time.
A peripheral (piece of computer hardware equipment) used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system such as a computer or information appliance.
The communication between an information processing system, such as a computer, and the outside world, possibly a human or another information processing system.
Where data is held in an electromagnetic, flash or optical form for access by a computer processor.
Type of secondary storage that users magnets to read and store data. Examples include floppy disks and hard disks.
Solid State Drive
A storage device that typically uses flash memory to store data, instructions, and information and that contains no moving parts
Stores data as microscopic light and dark spots on the disk surface such as CD, DVD, and Blu-ray storage technologies.
The pooling of physical storage from multiple network storage devices into what appears to be a single storage device that is managed from a central console.
A system within a computer or device, consisting of a connector or set of wires, that provides transportation for data.
Used by CPUs for communicating with other devices within the computer.
A computer bus (a series of lines connecting two or more devices) that is used to specify a physical address.
Anything that is physical, that you can touch with your hands, such as a keyboard, monitor, webcam, a stick of RAM, a CPU chip or a pen drive.
The programs (or sets of instructions) that make the hardware do useful things. Examples of software include word processors, operating systems, games and a web browsers.
A piece of hardware that you can connect to a computer. Normally, you would do this by plugging it in using a USB port, or by using a wireless connection such as Bluetooth.
Memory locations within the processor itself, storing data and instructions. There are several in the CPU.
Arithmetic Logic Unit
It can perform logical operations on data. For example, AND, OR and NOT comparisons.
Arithmetic Logic Unit
It can perform arithmetic calculations on data. For example, adding two numbers together (in binary).
Arithmetic Logic Unit
Hold data that has already been worked on, ready to be processed.
Arithmetic Logic Unit
Part of the processor, performs arithmetic, comparison, and other operation
Allowed programmers to write mnemonics, a shortened code that is easier for people to remember.
Will affect reliability speed and performance of components.
The number of bits that the CPU can work with in one cycle
This type of processor has two separate memories accessed by their own set of buses. One for instructions (programs) and one for data.
They can fetch an instruction from the instruction memory using the dedicated instruction bus, at the same time as fetching data memory using the dedicated data bus.
Uses a single processor (but allows multiple cores).
Uses one memory for both instructions and data.
This is a specialised processor that works in addition to the main processor.
Which Bus is missing from this image?
Which section of the Computer System is missing?
Complex Instruction Set Computing
Processor type used in laptops and desktop computers, made by Intel or AMD.
This processor type has more complex hardware.
This processor type is capable of multiple machine cycles per instruction.
This processor type is physically larger in size and requires more silicon to make thus more expensive.
More intensive tasks will do better with this type of processor.
This processor type cannot support pipelining.
Reduced Instruction Set Computing
This processor type is used in smartphones and tablets, based around ARM processor.
This processor type has simpler hardware.
This processor type uses a single machine cycle per instruction.
This processor type is smaller in size as less complex circuity required, less silicon needed to make thus cheaper.
This processor type has lower energy requirements, and can go into "sleep mode" when not actively processing.
This processor type runs at lower clock speed, but can perform simpler tasks more quickly than CISC.
This processor type can support pipelining.
Volatile memory used to store addresses within a computer system.
Used to store the boot program (bootstrap): a small program to load the operating system.
Used in embedded systems such as washing machines to store a program that can't be changed.
Some of the BIOS may be stored here, but because it includes settings that change, not the whole BIOS
Programs stored in this or flash memory are known as firmware.
Operating systems on older computers that were not upgradable were stored this way.
Which part of the CPU deals with Decode?
Which part of the CPU deals with Execute?
Where does the CPU fetch its data from?
Able to detect the presence of nearby objects without physical contact using infrared LED and IR light detectors.
Used to measure how bright the ambient light is. Used by phones to automatically adjust the screens brightness.
An instrument that can measure atmospheric pressure. Used to determine how high a device is above sea level. Improves GPS accuracy.
Inexpensive vibrating structure. A single part includes sensors for multiple axis, allowing output that has six full degrees of freedom.
Heart Rate Monitor
Largely used by performers of various types of physical exercise. Allows one to measure one's heart rate in real time.ped
A device that counts each step a person takes by detecting the motion of the person's hands or hips.
Measures acceleration that is being experienced realities to free fall. Also used for orientation on three axis.
An instrument used for measuring magnetic forces, especially the earth's magnetism.
An electronic device used to capture a digital image of the fingerprint pattern.
An instrument used to measure the altitude of an object above a fixed level.
The PC is copied into the MAR and the contents of first location are fetched and loaded into the CIR. The PC is incremented.
The contents of the CIR are sent to the control unit and _ _ _ _ _ _ d.
The contents of the memory location are fetched from memory and loaded into the MDR and then from here to the ALU. The ALU performs the operator onto the operand in the ACC. The result is stored in the ACC.
Small, high-speed storage locations in a processor that temporarily hold data and instructions.
Very high-speed storage structures built into the CPU chip set and are often used to store timing and state information for the CPU to maintain control over processes.