54 terms

APUSH: Unit 3 (Period 4)

Adams-Onis Treaty
1819 treaty between the United States and Spain in which Spain ceded Florida to the United States
A Spanish mission converted into a fort, it was besieged by Mexican troops in 1836. The Texas garrison held out for thirteen days, but in the final battle, all of the Texans were killed by the larger Mexican force. Historical site in the Texas Revolution
American System
Economic program advanced by Henry Clay that included support for a national bank, high tariffs, and internal improvements; emphasized strong role for federal government in the economy.
Bear Flag Revolt
A revolt of American settlers in California against Mexican rule. It ignited the Mexican War and ultimately made California a state.
Black Belt
Region of the Deep South with the highest concentration of slaves. The "Black belt" emerged in the nineteenth century as cotton production became more profitable and slavery expanded south and west.
California Gold Rush
1849 (San Francisco 49ers) Gold discovered in California attracted a rush of people all over the country and world to San Francisco; arrival of the Chinese; increased pressure on fed gov. to establish a stable gov. in CA
Mexican who was one of the original settlers of California
1817-1825, private interests and local government initiated an effort to build canals. revolutionized shipping, you could move stuff quickly and efficiently. Caused boom that lasted through 1830s. Opened Great lakes to the transport of goods.
Corrupt Bargain
Refers to the presidential election of 1824 in which Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House, convinced the House of Representatives to elect Adams rather than Jackson.
Corps of Discovery
Official name of the Lewis and Clark Expedition members
One who believes in God, but denies supernatural revelation.
Democratic Party
One of the two major U.S political party;founded in 1828 by Andrew Jackson to support a decentralized government and state's rights
Democratic-Republican Party
Led by Thomas Jefferson, believed people should have political power, favored strong STATE governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French, opposed National Bank
Embargo Act
1807 act which ended all of America's importation and exportation. Jefferson hoped the act would pressure the French and British to recognize U.S. neutrality rights in exchange for U.S. goods. Really, however, just hurt Americans and our economy and got repealed in 1809.
a person who arranged for the settlement of land in Texas during the 1800s
Era of Good Feelings
A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.
Erie Canal
A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West.
Evangelical Christian Churches
Christians who believe in the centrality of the conversion or "born again" experience in receiving salvation, believe in the authority of the Bible as God's revelation to humanity and have a strong commitment to evangelism or sharing the Christian message.
Gadsden Purchase
Agreement w/ Mexico that gave the US parts of present-day New Mexico & Arizona in exchange for $10 million; all but completed the continental expansion envisioned by those who believed in Manifest Destiny.
Hartford Convention
Meeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed it's complaints against the ruling Republican Party. These actions were largley viewed as traitorous to the country and lost the Federalist much influence
Indian Removal Act
Passed in 1830, authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi. The treaties enacted under this act's provisions paved the way for the reluctant—and often forcible—emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West.
Interchangeable Parts
Identical components that can be used in place of one another in manufacturing
Judicial Review
Allows the court to determine the constitutionality of laws
Kanagawa Treaty
An 1854 agreement - the first between the United States and Japan - it opened two Japanese ports to American commerce, protected shipwrecked American sailors, and ended Japan's 200 years of isolation
Louisiana Purchase
1803 purchase of the Louisiana territory from France. Made by Jefferson, this doubled the size of the US.
Lowell System
A paternalistic textile factory system of the early 19th century that employed mainly young women [age 15-35] from New England farms to increase efficiency, productivity & profits in ways different from other methods.
Manifest Destiny
A notion held by a nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic the Pacific.
Marbury v. Madison
established the principle of judicial review
McCulloch v. Maryland
Maryland imposes taxes on Second Bank of the United States. Cashier of bank (McCulloch) refuses to pay. Result: Congress has power to incorporate bank and Maryland cannot tax instruments of the fed. Gov. necessary and proper clause. Expand federal government power
Mexican-American War
(1846-1848) The war between the United States and Mexico in which the United States acquired one half of the Mexican territory.
Midnight Judges
Last-minute judicial appointments of judges with federalist beliefs that were made by President Adams just before Thomas Jefferson took office
Missouri Compromise
"Compromise of 1820" over the issue of slavery in Missouri. It was decided Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state and all states North of the 36th parallel were free states and all South were slave states.
Monroe Doctrine
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
Non-Intercourse Act
1809 - Replaced the Embargo of 1807. Unlike the Embargo, which forbade American trade with all foreign nations, this act only forbade trade with France and Britain. It did not succeed in changing British or French policy towards neutral ships, so it was replaced by Macon's Bill No. 2.
If a state believed that a law was unconstitutional, the state would declare that law null and void within that particular state's boundaries
Panic of 1837
When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
Positive Good Theory
The theory that owning slaves was the right thing to do and a God-given duty (the "White Man's Burden")
Religious Establishment
The name given to a state-church or to the creation of an "established church" that might play a role in, and expect support and loyalty from, all citizens
A philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people. The government is based on consent of the governed.
Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.
Specie Circular
Issued by Jackson - attempt to stop states from speculating land with money they printed that was not backed by anything - required land speculation in speci; Provided that in payment for public lands, the government would accept only gold or silver
Spoils System
A system of public employment based on rewarding party loyalists and friends.
A tax on imported goods
Tariff of Abominations
1828 - Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights.
Spanish settlers who lived in what is now southern Texas
The Second Bank of the US
This institution was chartered in 1816 under President Madison and became a depository for federal funds and a creditor for (loaning money to) state banks. It became unpopular after being blamed for the panic of 1819, and suspicion of corruption and mismanagement haunted it until its charter expired in 1836. Jackson fought against this institution throughout his presidency, proclaiming it to be an unconstitutional extension of the federal government and a tool that rich capitalists used to corrupt American society.
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
Treaty of Ghent
December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
(1848) treaty signed by the U.S. and Mexico that officially ended the Mexican-American War; Mexico had to give up much of its northern territory to the U.S (Mexican Cession); in exchange the U.S. gave Mexico $15 million and said that Mexicans living in the lands of the Mexican Cession would be protected
Utopian Society
Perfect society, live in a different way, ideal community; sharing, and public education
Wall of Separation
A Supreme Court interpretation of the establishment clause in the First Amendment that prevents government involvement with religion, even on a non-preferential level.
War Hawks
Southerners and Westerners who were eager for war with Britain. They had a strong sense of nationalism, and they wanted to takeover British land in North America and expand.
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
1842 - Established Maine's northern border and the boundaries of the Great Lake states.
Whig Party
An American political party formed in the 1830s to oppose President Andrew Jackson and the Democrats, stood for protective tariffs, national banking, and federal aid for internal improvements