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Module 1 Key Terms
Terms in this set (44)
a classification of people into groups on the basis of supposedly homogeneous and largely superficial biological traits such as skin color or hair characteristics.
a theoretical position concerning human behavior and ideas that says large forces such as the economy, social and political organization, and the media shape what people do and think.
an object, word, or action with culturally defined meaning that stands for something else; most symbols are arbitrary.
an approach to learning about culture that involves anthropologists working with members of the study population as partners and participants rather than as "subjects."
persistent feelings of uneasiness, loneliness, and anxiety that often occur when a person has shifted from one culture to a different one.
Deductive Approach (to research)
a research method that involves posing a research question or hypothesis, gathering data related to the question, and then assessing the findings in relation to the original hypothesis.
insiders' perceptions and categories, and their explanations forwhy they do what they do.
a firsthand, detailed description of a living culture, based on personal observation.
an analytical framework used by outside analysts in studying culture.
research in the field, which is any place where people and culture are found.
Indigenous Knowledge (IK)
local understanding of the environment, climate, plants, animals, and making a living
Inductive Approach (to research)
a research approach that avoids hypothesis formation in advance of the research and instead takes its lead from the culture being studied.
an aspect of fieldwork ethics requiring that the researcher inform the research participants of the intent, scope, and possible effects of the study and seek their consent to be in the study.
a research technique that involves gathering verbal data through questions or guided conversation between at least two people.
a trading network, linking many of the Trobriand Islands, in which men have long-standing partnerships for the exchange of everyday goods, such as food, as well as highly valued necklaces and armlets.
fieldwork conducted in more than one location in order to understand the culture of dispersed members of the culture or the relationships among different levels of culture.
basic fieldwork method in cultural anthropology that involves living in a culture for a long time while gathering data.
a formal research instrument containing a pre-set series of questions that the anthropologist asks in a face-to-face setting, by mail, or by email.
a trusting relationship between the researcher and the study population.
the naming of places.
the ability of humans to make choices and exercise free will even within dominating structures.
the study of humanity, including prehistoric origins and contemporary human diversity.
applied anthropology or practicing anthropology or practical anthropology
the use of anthropological knowledge to prevent or solve problems or to shape and achieve policy goals.
Archaeology or prehistory
the study of past human cultures through their material remains
biological anthropology or physical anthropology:
the study of humans as biological organisms, including evolution and contemporary variation.
a theory that explains human behavior and ideas mainly as shaped by biological features such as genes and hormones.
a way of categorizing people on the basis of their economic position in society, usually measured in terms of income or wealthand exhibited in terms of lifestyle.
Cultural anthropology or social anthropology
the study of living peoples and their cultures, including variation and change.
a theory that explains human behavior and ideas mainly as shaped by learning.
a theoretical position that takes material features of life, such as the environment, natural resources, and mode of livelihood, as the bases for explaining social organization and ideology.
the perspective that each culture must be understood in terms of the values and ideas of that culture and not judged by the standards of another
people's learned and shared behavior and beliefs.
a shared sense of identity among a group based on a heritage, language, or culture.
judging other cultures by the standards of one's own culture rather than by the standards of that particular culture.
the theory that a culture is similar to a biological organism, in which parts work to support the operation and maintenance of the whole.
culturally constructed and learned behaviors and ideas attributed to males, females, or blended genders
increased and intensified international ties related to the spread of Western, especially United States, capitalism that affects all world cultures.
the perspective in anthropology that cultures are complex systems that cannot be fully understood without paying attention to their different components, including economics, social organization, and ideology.
groups who have a long-standing connection with their home territory that predates colonial or outside societies. interpretive anthropology or interpretivism: the view that cultures are best understood by studying what people think about, their ideas, and the meanings that are important to them.
the study of human communication, including its origins, history, and contemporary variation and change.
the transformation of global culture by local cultures into something new
a distinct pattern of learned and shared behavior and thinking found within a larger culture.
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