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114 terms

Chapter 5: Integumentary System

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Androgen
Genetic term for an agent (usually a hormone, such as testosterone and androsterone) that stimulates development of male characteristics
Ductule
Very small duct
Homeostasis
State in which the regulatory mechanisms of the body maintain an internal environment within tolerable levels, despite changes in the external environment
Scrotum
Pouch of skin in the male that contains the testicles
Synthesis
Formation of a complex substance by the union of simpler compounds or elements
Synthesize
To produce by synthesis
adip/o
fat
lip/o
fat
steat/o
fat
adiposis
abnormal condition of fat
lipocele
hernia containing fat
steatitis
inflammation of fatty (adipose) tissue
cutane/o
skin
dermat/o
skin
derm/o
skin
subcutaneous
pertaining to beneath the skin
dermatoplasty
surgical repair of the skin
hypodermic
pertaining to under the skin
hidr/o
sweat
sudor/o
sweat
hidradenitis
inflammation of the sweat glands
sudoresis
profuse sweating
ichthy/o
dry, scaly
ichthyosis
abnormal condition of dry or scaly skin
kerat/o
horny tissue; hard; cornea
melan/o
black
melanoma
black tumor
myc/o
fungus
dermatomycosis
fungal infection of the skin
onych/o
Nail
onychomalacia
softening of the nail
ungu/o
nail
ungual
pertaining to the skin
pil/o
hair
pilonidal
pertaining to hair in a nest
trich/o
hair
trichopathy
disease involving the hair
scler/o
hardening; sclera (white of eye)
scleroderma
hardening of the skin
seb/o
sebum, sebaceous
seborrhea
discharge of sebum
squam/o
scale
squamous
pertaining to scales (or covered with scales)
xen/o
foreign, strange
xenograft
skin transplantation from a foreign donor (usually a pig) for a human; also called heterograph
xer/o
dry
xeroderma
Dry skin
-cyte
cell
-derma
skin
-logist
specialist in the study of
-logy
study of
-therapy
treatment
an-
without, not
dia-
through, across
epi-
above, upon
homo-
same
hyper-
excessive,above normal
sub-
under, below
Grade I Tumor
Tumor cells well differentiated
Grade I Tumor Characteristics
Close resemblance of tissue of origin, thus, retaining some specialized function
Grade II Tumor
Tumor Cells moderately differentiated
Grade II Tumor Characteristics
Less Resemblance of tissue of origin
More variation in size and shape of tumor cells
Increased mitoses
Grade III Tumor
Tumor cells poorly to very poorly differentiated
Grade III Tumor Characteristics
Only remotely resembles tissue of origin
Marked variations in shape and size of tumor cells
Greatly increased mitoses
Grade IV Tumor
Tumor cells very poorly differentiated
Grade IV Tumor Characteristics
Little or no resemblance to tissue of origin
Extreme variation in size and shape of tumor cells
T0
no evidence of tumor
Tis
Stage I
Carcinoma in situ indicates the tumor is in a defined location and shows no invasion into surrounding tissues
T1, T2, T3, T4
Stage II
Primarry tumor size and extent of local invasion, where TI is small with minimal invasion and T4 is large with extensive local invasion into surrounding organs and tissues
N0
Regional lymph nodes show no abnormalities
N1, N2, N3, N4
Stage III
Degree of lymph node involvement and spread to regional lymph nodes where N1 is less involvement with minimal spreading and N4 is more involvement with extensive spreading
M0
No evidence of metastasis
MI
Stage IV
Indicates Metastasis
Abcess
localized collection of pus at the site of an infection
Acne
Inflammatory disease of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles of the skin with characteristic lesions that include blackheads (comedos), inflammatory papules, pustules, nodules, and cysts; usually associated with seborrhea; also called acne vulgaris
Alopecia
Partial or complete loss of hair resulting from normal aging, an endocrine disorder, a drug reaction, anticancer medication, or a skin disease; commonly called baldness
Bowen Disease
Form of intraepidermal carcinoma (squamous cell) characterized by red-brown scaly or crusted lesions that resemble a patch of psoriasis or dermatitis; also called Bowen precancerous dermatosis
Cellulitis
Diffuse (widespread), acute infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue
Chloasma
Pigmentary skin discoloration usually occurring in yellowish brown patches or spots
Comedo
Typically small skin lesion of acne vulgaris caused by accumulation of keratin, bacteria, and dried sebum plugging an excretory duct of the skin
Dermatomycosis
Infection of the skin caused by fungi
Ecchymosis
Skin discoloration consisting of a large, irregularly formed hemorrhagic area with colors changing from blue-black to greenish brown or yellow; commonly called a bruise
Eczema
Chronic skin inflammation characterized by erythema, papules, vesicles, pustules, scales, crusts, scabs and possibly itching
Erythema
Redness of the skin caused by swelling of the capillaries
Eschar
Damaged tissue following a severe burn
Impetigo
Bacterial skin infection characterized by isolated pustules that become crusted and rupture
Keratosis
Thickened area of the epidermis or any horny growth on the skin (such as a callus or wart)
Lentigo
Small brown macules, especially on the face and arms, brought on by sun exposure, usually in middle aged or older person
Pallor
Unnatural paleness or absence of color in the skin
Pediculosis
Infestation with lice, transmitted by personal contact or common use of brushes, combs, or headgear
Petechia
Minute, pinpoint hemorrhage under the skin
Pressure Ulcer
Skin ulceration caused by prolonged pressure from lying in one position that prevents blood flow to the tissues, usually in bedridden patients; also known as decubitus ulcer
Pruritus
intense Itching
Psoriasis
Chronic skin disease characterized by circumscribed red patches covered by thick, dry, silvery, adherent scales caused by excessive development of the basal layer of the epidermis
Purpura
Any of several bleeding disorders characterized by hemorrhage into the tissue, particularly beneath the skin or mucous membrane, producing ecchymoses or petechiae
Scabies
contagious skin disease transmitted by the itch mite,commonly through sexual contact
Tinea
Fungal skin infection whose name commonly indicates the body part affected; commonly called ringworm
Urticaria
Allergic reaction of the skin characterized by the eruption of pale red,elevated patches called wheals or hives
Verruca
Epidermal growth caused by a virus; also known as warts. Types include plantar warts, juvenile warts and venereal warts
Vitiligo
localized loss of skin pigmentation characterized by milk-white patches
Skin Test
Any test in which a suspected allergen or sensitizer is applied to or injected into the skin to determine the patient's sensitivity to it
Intradermal (Skin Test)
Skin test that identifies suspected allergens by subcutaneously injecting small amounts of extracts of the suspected allergens and observing the skin for a subsequent reaction
Patch (Skin Test)
Skin test that identifies suspected allergens by topical application of the substance to be tested (such as food, pollen, and animal fur), usually on the forearm, and observing for a subsequent reaction
Scratch (Prick), Skin Test
Skin test that identifies suspected allergens by placing a small quantity of the suspected allergen on a lightly scratched area of the skin
Chemical Peel
Chemical removal of the outer layers of skin to treat acne scarring and general keratoses; also called chemabrasion
Debridement
Removal of necrotized tissue from a wound by surgical excision, enzymes, or chemical agents
Dermabrasion
Rubbing (abrasion) using wire brushes or sandpaper to mechanically scrape away (abrade) the epidermis
Fulguration
Tissue destruction by means of high-frequency electric current; also called electrodesiccation
Cyrosurgery
Use of subfreezing temperature (commonly liquid nitrogen) to destroy or eliminate abnormal tissue, such as tumors, warts and unwanted cancerous or infected tissue
Skin Graft
Surgical procedure to transplant healthy tissue by applying it to an injured site
Allograft (Skin Graft)
Transplantation of healthy tissue from one site to another site in the same individual
Autograft (Skin Graft)
Transplantation of healthy tissue from one site to another site in the same individual
Synthetic (Skin Graft)
Transplantation of artificial skin produced from collagen fibers arranged in a lattice pattern
Xenograft (Skin Graft)
Transplantation (dermis only) from a foreign donor (usually a pig) and transferred to a human; also called heterograft