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simple culinary terms

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whisks
used for incorporating mixtures that are not too dense, balloon type are used to incorporate air into mixtures or eggs
chinois
conical strainer with a handle
rotissoire
large, rectangular, heavy bottomed pan with low to medium-high sides and two handles
julienne
a long cut
brunoise
1 mm cube made from julienne cut
chiffonade
a cutting method that produces thin strips (ribbons) of herbs or leafy vegetables
slurry
raw starch combined with cold liquid
glaze
stocks that are reduced by 9/10 to a syrupy consistency and intense flavor
mother sauces
bechamel, espagnole, tomato, hollandaise, veloute
consomme
a stock from which all tiny impurities have been removed (clear, sparking broth)
clarification
the process in which a stock is made more flavorful and perfectly clear
puree
a potage in which liquid and some fresh or dried vegetables are cooked together and then thickened with the pureed vegetable
pickling
this process preserves food with vinegar or fermentation
dry cure
this process involves rubbing an item with salt and leaving to sit for a specific period of time (usually fish, sometimes meat)
liquid cure
this process involves submerging an item in brine
brine
a mixture of water, salt, sugar and spice (80% salt)
pasteurization
this process (used for liquids) involves heating to 180^F to destroy disease-causing bacteria and then rapidly cooled
bisques
a seasoned shellfish puree flavored with white wine, cognac and heavy cream
simple salads
salads made with one main ingredient and dressed appropriately
mixed salads
salads made with a mixture of several ingredients combined and seasoned together
composed salads
salads that feature several ingredients seasoned separately and presented together on one plate
vinaigrette
oil + vinegar + salt + pepper
extra virgin olive oil
olive oil with less than one percent acidity
virgin olive oil
olive oil with less than three percent acidity
peanut oil
heavy oil that is used for frying, deep frying, emulsions and southern style roux. Not suitable for dressing. Smoke point is 450^F
sesame oil
light and mild oil made from raw (light) or toasted (dark) sesame seeds. Smoke point is 410^F
corn oil
bland oil that is an excellent general purpose cooking oil. Smoke point of 410^F
canola oil
Canadian rapeseed oil that is low in saturated fats and lacks flavor. Smoke point is 435^F
red wine vinegar
sharp, sweet and full bodied vinegar. Compliments tart, strong greens
white wine vinegar
vinegar sweet and clean tasting vinegar. Compliments mild greens
balsamic vinegar
smooth, sweet and sour flavored vinegar made in Modena Italy.
rice wine vinegar
sharp and tangy (Chinese) or smooth and mellow (Japanese) vinegar produced from rice
glazing
similar to cooking a l'etuvee, but a small amount of sugar is added and the liquid is reduced to form a shiny, sweet coating
pommes
a word for potatoes
hollandaise
egg yolks, clarified butter, lemon juice, salt, cayenne pepper
tartar
hard boiled egg yolks, oil, vinegar, puree of scallions or chives
Broth
a flavorful liquid obtained from the long simmering of meats and/or vegetables.
Stock
a clear, unthickened liquid flavored by soluble substances extracted from meat, poultry or fish and their bones as well as from a mirepoix, other vegetables and seasonings.
Gratin
Foods with a browned or crusted top
Medium
warm pink center, otherwise brown
Medium Rare
a warm red center, otherwise pink
Medium well
mostly brown with a gray center, very little if any pink
Rare
a cool red center; pink otherwise
Well done
Brown throughout with no sign of pink
Tournedos
thick steak cut from the beef tenderloin
Poach
cook in a simmering liquid
Simmer
temperature just below the boiling point
Baste
To spoon liquid or fat over food as it cooks
Caramelize
To cook to the browned stage (sugar, onions)
Truss
To secure the wings and legs of poultry with twine and pin